Test 7

  1. Transmit nervous - system messages
  2. Support neurons
    Glial Cells
  3. 3 essential tasks of the nervous system
    Receive, Process, and Send
  4. Consisting of the brain and spinal cord
    Central Nervous System (CNS)
  5. Outside the brain and spinal cord, plus the sensory organs
    Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
  6. Can be pictured as a group of nerves and related nerve cells that fan out from either the brain or spinal cord
    Peripheral Nervous System (PDS)
  7. Any nerves that help carry messages to the brain or spinal cord
    Afferent division
  8. Any nerves that help carry messages from the brain or spinal cord
    Efferent Division
  9. 2 Types of nervous tissue cells
    Neurons and Clial Cells
  10. 2 fundamental parts of the nergous system
    Central Nervous System (CNS) and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
  11. Portion of the peripheral nervous system's efferent division that provides voluntary control over skeletal muscle
    Somatic Nervous System
  12. The part of the peripheral nervous system's efferent division that provides involuntary regulation of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands
    Autonomic Nervous System
  13. "Fight or Flight" - prepares the body for energy-consuming activities, such as fleeing or fighting (stimulatory effects)
    Sympathetic Division
  14. Type of division that causes increase heart rate and raises blood pressure
    Sympathetic Division
  15. "Rest-and-Digest" - promotes body activities that gain and conserve energy, such as digestion and reduced heart rate (relaxing effects)
    Parasympathetic Division
  16. Type of division that decreases heart rate and lowers blood pressure
    Parasympathetic Division
  17. Senses conditions both inside and outside the body and brings this received information to the central nervous system (afferent neurons)
    Sensory Neurons
  18. Interconnect other neurons
  19. Peripheral-system neurons that send instructions from the central nervous system to such structures as muscles or glands
    Motor Neurons
  20. Houses nucleus and other organelles
    Cell body
  21. Extensions of neurons that carry signals toward the neuronal cell body
  22. Extension of the neuron that carries signals away from the neuronal cell body
  23. Protect, insulate, and reinforce the neurons
    Glial supporting cells
  24. Membranous covering that glia provide to neurons
    Myelin Sheath
  25. 3 types of cells of the nervous system
    Sensory Neurons, Interneurons, Motor Neurons
  26. A communication line made from cable-like bundles of neuron fibers tightly wrapped in connective tissue
  27. Charge difference that exists from one sie of the neural plasma membrane to the other
    Membrane Potential
  28. Maintains both an electrical charge difference and a concentration difference that can get a nerve signal going - abundance of Na+ ions outside the cell - pumps 3 Na+ out for every 2 K+ ions pumped in
    Sodium Potassium Pump
  29. The sodium potassium pump, pumps ____ Na+ out for every ___ K+ ions pumped in
    3 , 2
  30. A temporary reversal of cell-membrane potential that results in a conducted nerve impulse down an axon
    Action Potential
  31. Area where sending neuron, receiving cell and the gap between them come together, or a relay point between a neuron and a receiving cell
  32. Gap in the synapse
    Synaptic Cleft
  33. A chemical, secreted into a synaptic cleft by a neuron, that affects another neuron or an effector by binding with receptors on it
  34. Can act as a communication center of its own, receiving input from sensory neurons and directing motor neurons in repsonse, with no input form the brain (reflex)
    Spinal cord key function
  35. Most sensory impulses that go to the brain dont go directly to the brain; they are channeled first through this
    Spinal Cord key function
  36. Automatic nervous-system repsonses that help us avoid danger or perserve a stable physical state
  37. The neural wiring of a single reflex - beings at a sensory receptor, runs through the spinal cord, and ends at an effector, such as a muscle or gland (knee jerk or patellar reflex)
    Reflex arc
  38. The human brain weights ____ pounds and is equivilant to the size of a ______ and has the consistency of ____ _____.
    3.3 , grapefruit, cream cheese
  39. Like the spinal cord with its spinal nerves, this has nerves extending from in (cranial nerves) that allow it ot communicate directly with other body tissues and organs (eyes, face muscles, as well as hear and lungs)
    The brain
  40. 6 Major regions of the brain
    Cerebrum, Cerebellum, Thalamus, Midbrain, Pons, and Medulla oblongata
  41. Largest region of the brain, responsible for much of our higher mental functioning
  42. The Cerebrum is divided into ____ and _____
    Which are also known as the ______ _______
    • left and right
    • cerebral hemispheres
  43. Outer layer of the cerebrum; site of our highest thinking and processing; covers the entire cerebrum, but amounts to a thin covering.
    Cerebral Cortex
  44. Within the Cerebral Cortex there are ______ and ______ which are the primary processing centers for sight and smell.
    Visual cortex and olfactory cortex
  45. The cerebral cotex also contains the ______ which plays a critical role in forming long-term memories
  46. Portion of the brain that refines our movements based on our "sense memory" of them - also helps maintain balance
  47. An integrating and relay center; sorts and relays selected information to specific areas in the cerebral cortex
  48. Portion of the brain that is important in reglulating drives and in maintaining homeostasis in the body; controls sleep-wake cycle (circadian rhythms) - activity in this also prompts a good deal of the bodys hormonal activity
  49. Helps maintain muscle tone and posture through control of involuntary motor response
  50. Primary function is to relay messages between the cerebrum and cerebellum; also helps control involuntary breathing
  51. Contians major centers concerned with the regulation on unconscious functions such as breathing, blood pressure, and digestion
    Medulla oblongata
  52. Those cell types that can be affected by a given hormone
    Target Cells
  53. Located primarily in the kidneys
    Antidiuretic hormone
  54. Located not only in the liver, but in muscle and fat cells throughout the body
    Insulin hormone
  55. Release their materials directly into the bloodstream or into surrounding tissues, without using the tubes known as ducts
    Endocrine glands
  56. Hormones derived from modification of a single amino acid
    Amino-acid base
  57. Hormones composed of chains of amino acids
    Peptide hormones
  58. All constructed around the chemical framework of the choleterol molecule - testosterone and estrogen
    Steroid hormones
Card Set
Test 7
Nervous & endocrin Eystems