Injury by Gunfire

  1. Firearms are involved in approximately ___________ of all homicides in the US.
  2. The FBI reported that in 1976, _______ were used in 49% of all murders committed in the US. Rifles and shotguns were used in __% and __% respectively. Cutting or stabbing was the COD in ______% of all murders in the US.
    • handguns
    • 6
    • 9
    • 19
  3. The following are essentials derived from the external examination of a gunshot wound: (1) _______ of fire, (2) _____ of fire
    • range
    • direction
  4. Only test firing of the gun in question with the type of ammunition that was used in a specific case enables _______ __________ of the range of fire.
    reliable determination
  5. Reliable chemical idenrification of grains of gunpowder is feasible by _______________.
    thin-layer chromatorgraphy
  6. Terminology most often used to describe ranges of fire is as follows: (1) ___________, when the weapon is fired with the muzzle in actual contact with the body; (2) _________ and (3) _____.
    • contact shot
    • close range shot
    • distant shot
  7. Loose fibers and fabric in the center of the bullet hole are often turned ___________, ________ from the body, as a result of the expanding gases returning through the defecet.
    • outward
    • away
  8. In the case of a contact shot of the head with a revolver or semiautomatic pistol, the wound is frequently _____ shaped due to tears that radiate from the sides of the would.
  9. A pocket under the skin containing blood mixed with gunpowder is formed by _______ of the tissues.
  10. Close examination of the defect in the bone usually shows the soot distributed circumferentialy, in contrast to the localized area occupied by the _______.
  11. With contact shots, fragments of bone no larger than 1/8 to ___ in. in diameter derive from the bullet hole in the skull are sometimes carried by the missle deep into the brain tissue.
  12. Small pcs of fabric from the victims clothing are occasionally carried in to the wound by the bullet, ________ the range of fire.
  13. An imprint of the muzzle on the skin is not limited to contact bullet wounds of the head area; the same imprint may be observed in contact shots in _________ of the body.
    other parts
  14. ___________ between the muzzle and the skin will proivde for the escape of the gasses when the gun is fired, with resulting dispersion of the muzzle blast
  15. Splitting of the wound edges ___________ in near contact shots.
    doe not occur
  16. Fractures of the skull radiating from the bullet hole are observed _________ in near contact wounds. The bright yellow flame which extends 2 to 2.5 inches from the muzzle at the time of discharge _________ clothing and skin and singes the hair. ________ is deposited on the target, but on ly a few granules of gunpowder may be scattered on the surface. Most of the gunpowder is _______ in to the bullet wound.
    • only rarely;
    • scorching
    • Soot
    • proppelled
  17. A characteristic cherry red discoloration of the musculature under a contact bullet wound enables identification of ________ in the tissue.
  18. A close range shot is one that is fired from a distance at which gunpowder residue as well as particles of primer and small fragments of metal from the bullet may be identified _______ the bullet hole.
  19. For most handguns, deomonstrable residues on skin are found at firing distances of up to _________. For rifles, this distance may reach several feet.
    12-18 inches
  20. A frequent source of error with respect to the evaluation of the distance from which a gun was fired is the comparison of a test pattern on a _______________ with the pattern of the wound on the skin.
    white paper or cloth
  21. The __________ of the barrel of a firearm has considerable bearing on the ___________ of the pattern of gunsmoke deposited on the target.
    • length
    • diameter
  22. A useful rule of thumb for handguns is that gunpowder residue may still be identified by naked-eye examination of the target at a distance of double the length of the _______.
  23. Generally speaking, as the distance between the muzzle and the target _______, the pattern of particles on the target _________ in diameter and the density of particle dispersion ______.
    • increases
    • increases
    • decreases
  24. On a human body no soot can usually be noted in shots fired from a distance greater than ______ inches.
  25. The terms _________, _________ _________, and ______ _________ are often used to describe the dispersed grains fo gunpowder and primer arond a bullet wound. The term ___ is reserved for small fragments of metal derived from the bullet.
    • tattooing;
    • powder stippling
    • powder burns
    • fouling
  26. Particles that are ejected from the barrel of a gun can usually be identified on the skin without difficult, as they are embbeded in the superficial layers of the skin and ________ be removed by wiping or even shaving of the area.
  27. _________ is situated on the skin surface and is easily removed by improper handling.
  28. A _________ extends the length of the barrel and absorbs some of the powder residue, so the use of a _______ may cause misinterpretation of the distance from which a gun was fired.
    • silencer
    • silencer
  29. A ________ shot is one that is fired from a distance at which gunsmoke will not reach the target--with most handguns, this distance exceeds 12 to 18 inches.
  30. No distinction with respect to distance can be made between one ____ shot and another.
  31. The external appearance of the entrance wound does not materially differ from that of a gunshot wound from a handgun or an ordinary rifle. However, the internal destruction is usually considerably _______ severe.
  32. The size of the temporary cavity depends in great part on the ________ energy of the bullet E=1/2 (Mass)(Velocity2).
  33. In the case of the ______ shot, a decision regarding the direction of fire is often difficult.
  34. Regardless of the distance from which a shot was fired, a characteristic feature of a bullet wound of entrance is _______ ________ ______--this results from scraping of the wound margins by the passing missile.
    circumferential marginal abrasion
  35. The _____________ is circular and uniform width if the bullet strikes the body perpendicularly, but if it strikes at an angle, the abrasion will be ______. The actual width of the abrasion at this point depends on the angle at which the bullet struck the body.
    • circumferential marginal abrasion
    • oval
  36. Marginal abrasion of an exit wound is _____, and when present it may confuse even the experienced examiner. It occurs exclusively if a ___object is pressed against the body at the site of the exiting bullet or if the body is leaning against a ____ surface.
    • rare
    • firm
    • hard
  37. On the rare occasion that it happens and the exit is shored, the exiting bullet crushes the skin against the hard surface, thus abrading the area immediately around or adjacent to the exit wound causing a ____ ________.
    marginal abrasion
  38. The _____ of _____ appears as a black deposit on clothing and is caused by dirt and lube from the gun barrel that transferred onto the bullet which may be deposited at the edge of a bullet hole--can sometimes be mistaken for soot.
    ring of dirt
  39. The ________ appears as if it were printed on the fabric, where as ______ is dark in the center and fades toward the periphery. The ___________ is not recognizable on skin.
    • ring of dirt
    • soot
    • ring of dirt
  40. The frayed edges of a bullet hole in a garment follow the ____ of the bullet in most cases, depending on the fabric type.
  41. A bullet wound entry is often __________ than the caliber of the bullet, while the exit wound is frequently considerably _________.
    • smaller
    • larger
  42. A conclusion concerning the caliber of bullet based on the diameter of the entrance wound is ________ and _________.
    • speculative
    • inadvisable
  43. Exit wounds in the head are frequently _____ shaped, resembling contact entrance wounds except for the absence of marginal abrasion and gunsmoke in the depth of the wound.
  44. An entrance wound may assume a bizarre shape if the bullet is deformed by striking a firm object before entering the body, such a bullet is referred to as a _________ bullet.
  45. It is ____ to have two exit wounds for one bullet.
  46. The wound track produced by the missile after striking or grazing bone is outlined on an X-ray by a deposit of _______ __. This consists of punctate particles of metal scattered along some distance of the wound track, indicating the direction of the shot as particle dispersion is wider in the direction of travel.
    metallic snow
  47. In the skull, the entrance hole is bevelled ____, the defect on the ___ surface of the bone is larger than that on the ____. An exit hole in the skull is bevelled ____; it is larger on the ___ than on the ___ surfaces of the bone and may justly be referred to as a crater shape.
    • inward
    • inner
    • outer
    • outward
    • outer
    • inner
  48. A rare observation in GSWs of the head in which the bullet strikes at an angle is deflection of the bullet from its trajectory by impact on the bone to produce a continuous wound track under the skin _____ _________ of the skull, following the curvature of the skull.
    without penetration
  49. A bullet can strike a rib at an angle sometimes passing under the skin, partly _____ the chest and possible exiting the opposite side without having penetrated the pleural cavities.
  50. Occassionally, in ____ shots of the head, the same entrance hole in the skull is bevelled both inward and outward, due to chipping of the outer layer of the bone around the defect by the forecful return of gases through the bullet hole or by the twisting force of the rotating bullet.
  51. The vast majority of ____ shots is in the temple, the heart, the forehead and the mouth. Among these, the ______ area is used most frequently.
    • suicidal
    • temple
  52. _________- handed individuals are more likely to shot themselves in the ___ side of the head.
    • Right
    • right
  53. With rifles and shotguns in good condition, it is very _____ that identifiable gunsmoke will be found on the hand that pulled the trigger.
  54. The index finger, thumb and connecting web areas of the shooting hand are most likely to be contaminated with ______.
  55. The parafin test is ______ for gunpowder residue--any substance containing soluble nitrates will give a positive result.
    not specific
  56. The Harrison test tests for ____ and ____ using sodium rhodizonate. This method is rapid but has poor sensitivity.
    • barium
    • antimony
  57. Neutron activation analysis also looks for barium and antimony, is highly sensitive, but is _________ prohibitive and has _____ availability.
    • cost
    • limited
  58. Flameless atomic absorption spectroscopy has _______ to the sensitivity of NAA.
  59. Measurement of the victim's arm __________ yields the required information.
  60. Multiple suicidal shots commonly involve the _________ of the body.
    same general area
  61. _________ frequently remove the clothing from the area that they tend to shoot--not often seen in ______-.
    • Suicides
    • homicides
  62. A ________ is a missile that is deviated from its course by striking an intermediary object. ________ bullets have greater ______ potential.
    • ricochet
    • Jacketed
    • ricochet
  63. On water and wood the angle of incident equals the angle of reflection of a _______ bullet.
  64. In general, capability to act is shorter in victims of ________ than in victims of ______.
    • shootings
    • stabbings
  65. The autopsy of the victim of gunfire should at least include description of ________, pertinent findings regarding bullet ______, COD, tox and serological analyses.
    • clothing
    • wounds
  66. In clothing, the location of bullet holes in clothes is described in _______ to the distance from collar, seams, pockets, etc. Several holes may result from ______ bullet due to the presence of creases. And mention whether the fibers of the fabric are turned inwards or outwards.
    • relation
    • one
  67. _________ is by far the most common cause of death in GSW vics.
  68. The ______ of a shotgun indicates the inside diameter of its bore. It is defined as the number of round lead balls each of the same diameter of the bore required to weigh one pound.
  69. A .410 gauge shotgun has a bore diameter of ___.
    .410 inches
  70. The __________ is the most commonly used shotgun.
    12 gauge
  71. The degree of choke modifies the _______ of exiting shot from the muzzle and governs the size of the shot pattern at a given distance from the muzzle.
  72. The choke of a gun barrel is usually expressed in shot percentages that fall within a 30 in. circle at 40 yd.
    65-75% is ____
    55-65% is ____
    45-55% is ____
    35-45% is ____
    • full
    • modified
    • improved cylinder
    • cylinder bore
  73. Close-range shotgun wounds varying up to as much as ____ ft., enters the body as a single conglomerate mass, producing a round defect with abrasion and some scalloping.
    4 to 5 ft.
  74. Patterns observed from _________ wounds vary with choke, length of barrel, load of powder, size of shot and gauge of gun, as well as the varying designs of the inner liner within the shot shells.
  75. The _______ may follow the main bulk of shot into the interior of the body, but due to dispersion of the pellets at ranges of fire in excess of 10 to 12 ft., the ______ does not usually penetrate the body.
    • wadding
    • wadding
  76. The _____ ________ ________ effect occurs when, at close range, the shot are bunched, they strike one another upon impact with the primary target and spray out in a wide pattern as they continue on into the body.
    billiard ball ricochet
Card Set
Injury by Gunfire
Injury by Gunfire