Which of the following is a rapid-acting insulin with an onset of action of less than 15 minutes?
C. insulin aspart (Novolog)
Which long-acting insulin mimics natural, basal insulin with no peak action and a duration of 24 hours?
C. insulin glargine (Lantus)
Which insulin can be administered by continuous intravenous infusion?
D. regular insulin (Humulin R)
For the most complete absorption, the recommended site for insulin injection should be into which area of the body?
Assuming the patient eats breakfast at
8:30 AM, lunch at noon, and dinner at 6:00 PM, he or she is at highest
risk of hypoglycemia following an 8:00 AM dose of NPH insulin at
D. 5:00 PM.
Breakfast eaten at 8:30 AM would cover the onset of NPH insulin, and lunch will cover the 2 PM time frame. However, if the patient does not eat a mid-afternoon snack, the NPH insulin may be peaking just before
dinner without sufficient glucose on hand to prevent hypoglycemia.
Which information should be included in a teaching plan for patients taking oral hypoglycemic drugs? (Select all that apply.)
A. B. D.
Oral hypoglycemic drugs must be taken on a daily scheduled basis to maintain euglycemia and prevent long-term complications of diabetes. All other options are correct.
The nurse is caring for a patient
scheduled to undergo a cardiac catheterization procedure utilizing
iodine-based contrast material. The nurse would question an order for
which medication to be given to this patient the day before the
B. metformin (Glucophage)
The concurrent use of metformin iodinated (iodine-containing) radiologic contrast media has been associated with both acute renal failure and lactic acidosis. Therefore metformin should be discontinued at least 48 hours prior to any radiologic study requiring such contrast media and should be held for at least 48 hours after the procedure.
Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors differ from the sulfonylureas in that they
A. delay the absorption of glucose, leading to lower glucose levels.
Alpha-glucosidase is an enzyme necessary for the absorption of glucose from the gastrointestinal tract. Inhibiting this enzyme inhibits glucose absorption, delaying rises in postprandial serum glucose levels.
Which actions describe the beneficial effects produced by sulfonylurea oral hypoglycemics? (Select all that apply.)
A. C. D.
The sulfonylureas stimulate insulin secretion from the beta cells of the pancreas; enhance the actions of insulin in muscle, liver, and adipose tissue; and prevent the liver from breaking insulin down as fast as it ordinarily would (reduced hepatic clearance). Increased hepatic glucose production would serve to increase serum glucose levels, the opposite effect of oral hypoglycemic drugs.
Which oral hypoglycemic drug has a quick
onset and short duration of action, enabling the patient to take the
medication 30 minutes before eating and skip the dose if he or she does
Repaglinide is known as the “Humalog of oral
hypoglycemic drugs.” The drug’s very fast onset of action allows patients to take the drug with meals and skip a dose when they skip a meal.
Pramlintide (Symlin) is added to the
treatment plan for a patient with type 1 diabetes. When teaching the
patient about this medication, the nurse recognizes that
A. pramlintide slows gastric emptying.
Pramlintide is a synthetic form of the naturally occurring hormone amylin. It works by slowing gastric emptying, suppressing glucagon secretion, and centrally modulating appetite and satiety. It is only administered subcutaneously.
When administering 30 units regular insulin and 70 units NPH insulin, the nurse will perform which action?
A. Draw up the regular insulin into the syringe first, followed by the cloudy NPH insulin.
Drawing up the regular insulin into the syringe first prevents accidental mixture of NPH insulin into the vial of regular insulin, which could cause an alteration in the onset of action of the regular insulin.
he nurse would include which statement when teaching a patient about insulin glargine?
B. “You cannot mix this insulin with regular insulin and thus will have to take two injections.”
Insulin glargine is a long-acting insulin with duration of action up to 24 hours. It should not be mixed with any
To achieve the most beneficial effect, the nurse plans to administer glipizide (Glucotrol)
B. 30 minutes before a meal.
Glipizide works best if given 30 minutes before meals. This allows the timing of the insulin secretion induced by the glipizide to correspond to the elevation in the blood glucose level induced by the meal.
Diabetic teaching includes treatment of hypoglycemia with which drug?