When was Henry VI born?
How did Henry V secure himself as heir to the French throne and when?
- By winning the Battle of Agincourt
- in 1415
Give one example of how the crown was in debt during Henry VI's reign.
Crown was in 372,000 pounds worth of debt by 1450.
What did Parliament desparately try to pass as a result of the crown's increased debt?
Act of Resumption, spring 1450
When was the Cade's Rebellion and where was it? What did the rebels manage to do?
- 1450, Kent
- The rebels managed to hold London for a few days - although eventually put down by the king's forces, they managed to show up the significant weaknesses of Henry's rule.
How much was Henry supposed to pay Duke of York but failed to do so? For what?
- Henry fails to pay 38,000 pounds he owed York for his service in France.
- York feels resentment towards king.
What are part of the reasons why York was in a slight financial difficulty in 1450's?
- Henry fail to pay him 38,000 pounds
- Many of his land in France were lost by Suffolk and Somerset
- (As a result, York had to sell some of his prized possessions)
What did the king do that further alienated York? Where was he instead sent to?
- York was replaced by the king's favourite, Somerset in the prestigious and powerful position as Lieutenant in Normandy - 1447.
- Instead sent to Ireland - virtual exclusion from royal court. - alienated.
When did York come back from Ireland and what did he find out?
- September 1450
- Very unhappy to find out that Duke of Somerset, who was largely responsible for the loss of Normandy, was in a favoured position with the king.
Why did Warwick dispute with Somerset? And when?
- Over the lordship of Glamorgan
- Warwick was resentful that the king granted Somerset with this important title when he held it for over 3 years successfully.
What/when did Henry sign with France that was very unpopular? What were the terms?
- 1444 - Truce of Tours with Charles VII of France.
- Henry was betrothed to Margaret of Anjou - poor match - for she was only distantly related to Charles VII and through marriage, not blood.
- One of the terms was for England to surrender Maine.
- Henry was expected to pay for the marriage, and, crucially, the marriage did not come with a dowry.
What happened to Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester in 1447?
- He criticised the king's policy of appeasement towards France and was arrested on charges of treason by Suffolk.
- Died mysteriously in custody 5 days later.
When was England finally forced to surrender Maine to the French?
What happened in 1449 relating to English actions against the French?
- The advocates for peace (HVI & Suffolk faction) were desperate to have some sort of success and regain some land lost in France.
- So, foolishly organised a feeble attack on Fougeres.
- Total failure and Charles VII took this opportunity and chased the English out of Normandy altogether. (1450)
What happened in 1450 relating to the Duke of Suffolk?
- Suffolk heavily criticised for loss of Normandy of 1450 (same year), and was found guilty.
- Henry showed favouritism again by sending him to exile instead.
- However, Suffolk's ship was interrupted off the coast of Kent, and Suffolk was beheaded.
What part of France was the only part that remained controlled by the English in 1453?
When did York lead his army of retainers to meet the king where?
- 1452 - at Dartford
- But was forced to submit.
- Somerset remained in favour.
What happened in 1453?
- Gascony (the last English possession in France with exception of Calais) was lost to the French.
- Henry fell into temporary insanity. - creating a power vacuum.
- Did not recognise his son Prince Edward when he was born in the same year.
- Henry's insanity triggered nobles to sort out rivalries by armed conflict. EG: Aug 1453 - Several hundred Percy retainers ambushed a party of the Nevilles near York.
What did York manage to do in 1454?
- After much wrangling with Margaret of Anjou and other nobles, York managed to get himself proclaimed Lord Protector for the duration of Henry's insanity. (They were struggling for the power vacuum formed as a result of insanity)
- York had Somerset arrested.
When did Henry VI recover from the bout of insanity, and what happened as a result?
- York was dismissed
- York, now fearing revenge from the now freed Somerset, his faction in government and the Queen, York gathered armed supporters and fought the king's supporters at St. Albans.
What are the 6 main points to consider when writing an essay about the reasons for Wars of Roses etc?
- Henry's personality
- Private concerns and personalities of key individuals
- Conflicting dynastic claims
- System of livery and maintenance/ bastard feudalism
- Gradual shift in power from king towards nobility
- End of Hundred Years War
Private concerns and personalities of key individuals
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List the main key individuals whose concerns had contributed to the outbreak of war in 1455.
- Warwick/ Nevilles
- Margaret of Anjou
Outline how private concern of Warwick contributed to outbreak of war in 1455.
- Warwick concerned of decreased influence during H's bout of insanity. - shown by fact that in 1452, they helped king put down York's army in Dartford.
- Warwick very ambitious
- Also disputed with Somerset over Glamorgan
Outline how ambitions of Margaret of Anjou contributed to outbreak of war in 1455.
- Margaret of Anjou - strong advocate for peace in France - led to Truce of Tours and significant in creating factions in government.
- Determined her son to inherit the throne - quarrel with York, which led to York feeling threatened and thus significant in causing war.
Outline how York's concerns and ambitions led to outbreak of war.
- Was heir presumptive for a period, yet did not receive the level of influence in court and kingly decisions that he believed he deserved.
- Resentful of the king and particularly Somerset.
- His quarrel with Somerset and his actions against him in 1454 when he became Lord Protectorate, was a significant trigger to starting Wars of the Roses.
Outline how Suffolk contributed to outbreak of war.
- Favouritism led to factional government and local disorder and injustice. (eg. Cade's Rebellion)
- Suffolk managed to manipulate the king - led to unpopular decisions and weakening of the monarch.
How can we still blame Henry? What could he have done to minimise the effect of the concerns of individuals?
- Henry should have channeled personal ambitions of key individuals in a direction that was not self-destructive or a threat to the throne.
- Should not have let nobles become so powerful and overmighty - linked to his use of patronage
- Should have kept York more involved.
- Should not have let greedy individuals like Margaret and Suffolk to control him.
- Warwick got so powerful in the north because livery and maintenance in the north was not controlled. (Should have controlled regional government with more care.)
Conflicting dynastic claims.
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York's rivals were continuously trying to encourage the king to pick alternative heir presumptive. Give one example.
Suffolk arranged for his son to marry Beaufort heiress in 1450, in order to obtain more royal connections.
When did Henry IV usurp the throne from who? How could this possibly be linked to the outbreak of war in 1455?
- 1399 - from Richard II
- Could have stirred a general sense of unpopularity towards the Lancastrian government.
Why could York be a threat to Henry in terms of dynastic claims?
- He had a strong royal connection and claim to the throne - descended from Edward III.
- Gave those who were unsatisfied with the current government (eg. merchants) a figurehead to rally around.
- eg. In Cade's Rebellion, rebels demanded that York have more power in royal council.
What did the rebels demand in Cade's Rebellion?
- Yorkists should be given their rightful places in royal council.
- Political reform
- Removal of "evil advisors" who monopolised patronage and ruled oppressively.
- End of domination of Kent by corrupt members of royalty like Lord Saye (Treasurer of England) and his relatives.
- Inquiries into loss of France and death of Gloucester.
- End to financial inefficiency (372,000 debt)
What could Henry have done differently in terms of conflicting dynastic cliams?
- Again, should have been more diplomatic with magnates - especially those with royal connections and dynastic claims.
- Should have been less hostile to York.