1. What are trichostrongyles?
    hair like worms
  2. What are the different trichostrongyles?
    • Trichostrongylus
    • Haemonchus
    • Ostertagia
    • Cooperia
    • Nematodirus
    • Dictyocaulus
  3. Do trichostrongyles have an intermediate host?
  4. What kind of life cycle do trichostrongyles have?
    direct life cycle
  5. Do trichostrongyles migrate?
  6. How do trichostrongyles infect?
    ingestion of L3
  7. What is the PPP of trichostrongyles?
    very short 2 - 3 weeks
  8. Can hypobiosis occur with trichostrongyles?
  9. What is periparturient rise?
    around time of birth
  10. When does hypobiosis usually occur?
    • periparturient rise
    • infect pastures around parturition so that the trichstrongyles can infect the baby animals
  11. What is the most effective treatment for trichostrongyles?
    macrolide antiparasitics
  12. Who is the host for Ostertagia? Where is the infection site?
    • cattle, sheep, goat
    • adults: lumen, gastric mucosal surface
    • larvae: gastric glands
  13. Who is the host for Trichostrongylus axei? Where is the infection site?
    • ruminants, horses, pigs
    • abomasum, stomach
  14. Who is the host for Cooperia? Where is the infection site?
    • sheep, goats
    • small intestines
  15. What are Trichostrongylus axei?
    hair worms
  16. What is the pathology for Trichostrongylus axei?
  17. What does Trichostrongylus axei cause if there is a large number of them?
    • debilitating watery diarrhea - often dark green
    • another name: black scours
  18. What is Haemonchus contortus?
    barberpole worm
  19. Who is the host for Haemonchus contortus? Where is the infection site?
    • small ruminants
    • abomasum
  20. What do Haemonchus contortus do? What does this cause?
    • sucks blood
    • blood loss anemia
  21. What are the clinical signs of Haemonchus contortus?
    • sudden death in lambs
    • acute: anemia, edema (bottle jaw), weakness, melena
    • chronic: weight loss, lethargy, anemia
  22. How do we diagnose Haemonchus contortus?
    • clinical signs
    • strongyle-type egg in feces
    • necropsy
  23. What is the primary cattle parasite worldwide?
  24. What is the pathogen for adult Ostertagia?
    gastric irritation
  25. What is the pathogen for Ostertagia larvae?
    • watery diarrhea
    • anemia
    • hypoproteinemia
    • emaciation
    • neutral pH in abomasum
  26. If environmental conditions are poor what do Ostertagia do?
    undergo hypobiosis in the host
  27. When conditions improve, what do Ostertagia do?
    turn into adults, seed pasture with their eggs
  28. Do trichostrongyles infect transmammary or transplacental?
  29. Ostertagiasis infect in two different ways. When does type I infect?
    when pasture conditions are good
  30. How does Type I Ostertagia infect?
    • infect pastured young cattle during early grazing season
    • the worms mature without passing through hypobiosis
  31. When do Ostertagia Type II infect?
    • larvae undergo hypobiosis and wait it out
    • late winter in the north
    • fall in the south
  32. What are the clinical signs of Ostertagiasis?
    • diarrhea
    • anorexia or reduced appetite
    • dehydration
    • thirst
    • weight loss
    • submandibular edema (hypoproteinemia, bottle jaw)
    • anemia
  33. How do we diagnose Ostertagiasis?
    typical strongyle-type egg
  34. When should we deworm cattle?
    • cows following calving
    • cows when calves wean
    • young calves, midsummer at weaning
    • yearlings in spring or fall
    • dairy cows during lactation
  35. What should we do after we deworm cattle?
    rotate pastures
  36. Who is the host for Nematodirus? What is their infection site?
    • sheep, goats, cattle, other ruminants
    • small intestines
  37. What is the pathogen for Nematodirus when there are large numbers of them?
    severe debilitating diarrhea
  38. What is the pathogen of Cooperia?
    • diarrhea
    • poor weight gain
    • anorexia
  39. Cooperia are usually secondary to which types of infections?
    • Haemonchus
    • Ostertagia
  40. How do we diagnose Cooperia?
    typical strongyle-type egg
  41. What are Dictyocaulus viviparous?
    thin thread-like worms that parasitize ruminant lungs
  42. What is the life cycle of Dictyocaulus?
    • oviparous females (in lungs) lay eggs that are already embryonated
    • hatch immediately
    • migrate up trachea
    • coughed up and swallowed
    • pass out in feces
    • larvae crawl into fungus
  43. What are oviparous females?
    females that lay eggs
  44. How does fungus help Dictyocaulus?
    when the fungus explode the larvae exlode out with the fungus and all over the pasture
  45. If Dictyocaulus are ingested, how do they migrate?
    • ingested
    • goes thru intestinal wall to mesenteric lymph nodes
    • lymphatics (lymph gets dumped into blood stream)
    • goes to blood
    • goes to lungs
  46. What is the pathogen of Dictyocaulus?
    lungs: pulmonary edema, bronchitis, pneumonia
  47. How do we diagnose Dictyocaulus?
    • clinical signs: coughing cattle
    • Baermann apparatus: L1's
  48. What is Dictyocaulus arnfeldi?
    lungworm of horses and donkeys
  49. What is the life cycle of Dictyocaulus arnfeldi?
    • life cycle similar except embryonated egg is passed in feces
    • hatches
    • ingested
  50. What age do Dictyocaulus arnfeldi infect donkeys? Horses?
    • Donkeys: at any age
    • Horses: foals and yearlings
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