Chapter 11 Medical Terminology

  1. Endocrine system consists of these glands
    • adrenal glands
    • two ovaries
    • four parathyroids
    • pancreas
    • pineal glands
    • pituitary gland
    • testes
    • thymus gland
    • thyroid gland
  2. Two types of glands
    • Exocrine- release their secretions into a duct that carries them to the outside of the body. (sweat)
    • Endocrine- release hormones directly into the bloodstream. NO DUCTS ( ductless glands)
  3. Estrogen
    stimulates development of sencondary sex characteristics in females; regulates menstrual cycle
  4. Progesterone
    Prepares for conditions of pregnancy
  5. Pancreas
    • Glucagon- Stimulates liver to release glucose into the blood
    • Insulin- Regulates and promotes entry of glucose into cells
  6. Parathyroids
    Parathyroid hormones (PTH)- Stimulates bones breakdown; regulates calcuim level in the blood.
  7. Pituitary anterior lobe
    • Adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH)- regulates function of the adrenal cortex
    • Follicle Stimulating hormone (FSH)- Stimulates growth of eggs in females and sperm in males
    • Growth Hormone (GH)- Stimulates the growth of the body
    • Luteinizing hormones (LH)- Regulates fx of male and female gonads and plays a role on releasing ova in females.
    • Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)- Stimulates pigment in skin
    • Prolactin- Stimulates milk production
    • Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)- Regulates fx of thyroid gland
  8. Pituitary Posterior Lobe
    • Antiduiretic hormone (ADH)- Stimulates reabsorption of water by kidneys
    • Oxytocin- Stimulates uterine contractions and releases milk into ducts.
  9. Testes
    Testosterone-Promotes sperm production and development of secondary sex characteristics in males
  10. Thymus
    Thymosin- Promotes development of cells in immune system
  11. Thyroid gland
    • Calcitonin-Stimulates deposition of calcuim into bone
    • Thyroxine (T4)-Stimulates metabolism in cells
    • Triiodothyronine (T3)- Stimulates metabolism in cells
  12. Adrenal Glands
    • Two glands located above kidneys
    • Each gland is composed of two sections: Adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla.
  13. Adrenal Cortex
    • manufactures several different families of hormones
    • mineralocorticoids
    • glucocorticoids
    • steriod sex hormones - androgens, estrogen, and progestrone
    • aldosterone- regulates sodium (Na+) and postassium (K+) levels in the body.

    CORTEX= Corticosteroids
  14. Inner Adrenal Medulla
    • responsible for secreting the hormones
    • Epinephrine=adrenaline
    • Norepinephrine
    • increase blood pressure, heart rate, and respiration levels.
    • Helps the body perform better during emergencies or otherwise stressful times.
  15. Ovaries
    • Estrogen- female sex hormones
    • gametes- ova
    • gonads- produce gametes
    • menstrual cycle
    • ova-female egg
    • progestrone -female sex hormones- maintains suitable uterine environment
  16. Pancreas
    • Only organ with both endocrine and exocrine functions.
    • exocrine- releases digestive enzymes through a duct into the duodenum/ small instestine
    • endocrine- called the Islets of Langerhans
    • Islets of Langerhans- cells produce two different hormones insulins and glucagon
    • Insulin produced by Beta islet cells stimulates body to take up glucose from the bloodstream lowering blood sugar.
    • Cells obtain glucose they need for cellular respiration.
    • Glucagon produced by Alpha islet cells- stimulates the liver to release glucose thereby raising the blood glucose level
Card Set
Chapter 11 Medical Terminology
Glands, Cortisol