Endocrine system consists of these glands
- adrenal glands
- two ovaries
- four parathyroids
- pineal glands
- pituitary gland
- thymus gland
- thyroid gland
Two types of glands
- Exocrine- release their secretions into a duct that carries them to the outside of the body. (sweat)
- Endocrine- release hormones directly into the bloodstream. NO DUCTS ( ductless glands)
stimulates development of sencondary sex characteristics in females; regulates menstrual cycle
Prepares for conditions of pregnancy
- Glucagon- Stimulates liver to release glucose into the blood
- Insulin- Regulates and promotes entry of glucose into cells
Parathyroid hormones (PTH)- Stimulates bones breakdown; regulates calcuim level in the blood.
Pituitary anterior lobe
- Adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH)- regulates function of the adrenal cortex
- Follicle Stimulating hormone (FSH)- Stimulates growth of eggs in females and sperm in males
- Growth Hormone (GH)- Stimulates the growth of the body
- Luteinizing hormones (LH)- Regulates fx of male and female gonads and plays a role on releasing ova in females.
- Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)- Stimulates pigment in skin
- Prolactin- Stimulates milk production
- Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)- Regulates fx of thyroid gland
Pituitary Posterior Lobe
- Antiduiretic hormone (ADH)- Stimulates reabsorption of water by kidneys
- Oxytocin- Stimulates uterine contractions and releases milk into ducts.
Testosterone-Promotes sperm production and development of secondary sex characteristics in males
Thymosin- Promotes development of cells in immune system
- Calcitonin-Stimulates deposition of calcuim into bone
- Thyroxine (T4)-Stimulates metabolism in cells
- Triiodothyronine (T3)- Stimulates metabolism in cells
- Two glands located above kidneys
- Each gland is composed of two sections: Adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla.
- manufactures several different families of hormones
- mineralocorticoidsglucocorticoidssteriod sex hormones - androgens, estrogen, and progestrone
- aldosterone- regulates sodium (Na+) and postassium (K+) levels in the body.
Inner Adrenal Medulla
- responsible for secreting the hormones
- Epinephrine=adrenalineNorepinephrineincrease blood pressure, heart rate, and respiration levels.
- Helps the body perform better during emergencies or otherwise stressful times.
- Estrogen- female sex hormones
- gametes- ova
- gonads- produce gametes
- menstrual cycle
- ova-female egg
- progestrone -female sex hormones- maintains suitable uterine environment
- Only organ with both endocrine and exocrine functions.
- exocrine- releases digestive enzymes through a duct into the duodenum/ small instestine
- endocrine- called the Islets of Langerhans
- Islets of Langerhans- cells produce two different hormones insulins and glucagon
- Insulin produced by Beta islet cells stimulates body to take up glucose from the bloodstream lowering blood sugar.
- Cells obtain glucose they need for cellular respiration.
- Glucagon produced by Alpha islet cells- stimulates the liver to release glucose thereby raising the blood glucose level