Unit 1

  1. What is the nature of infection
    If a pathogen is present it doesn't mean that infection will occur. Microogranism is present or invades a host but does not cause infection it is a colonization. Infections are infectious or communicable
  2. what is infection
    the entry and multiplication of an organism, you need a host, invasion of a susceptible host by an organism. Only goes to diseased state if organisms can multiply
  3. when does the disease or infection result
    When pathogens multiply and cuase signs or symptoms it is symptomatic. if signs and symptoms are nto present it is asymptomatic
  4. what is a communicable disease
    can be transmitted directly from one person to another
  5. what is the chain of infection
    • Infections agent/pathogen
    • reservior
    • portol of exit
    • mode of transmission
    • portal of entry
    • host
  6. what do the microorganisms consist of
    • include bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa
    • resident flora = normal flora on skin they survive and multiply w/o causing illness. major part of body's protection
    • transient flora = attach to skin when person has contact with another person. Can be transmitted from bedpan or contaminated dressing (must be washed off to prevent being spread)
  7. What is the criteria for an organism to cause disease
    • Must have sufficient # of organisms (dose)
    • must have virulence or ability to survive in the host or outside the body
    • must have ability to enter and survive in the host
    • host must be susceptible
    • (a reservior is a place where pathogens can survive but may or may not multiply)
  8. Who can be reserviors
    Humans, animals, insects, food, water
  9. what do microorganisms need to survive
    food, oxygen, water, temp, pH and light
  10. what are the portal of exits/entry?
    • skin and mucous membranes
    • respiratory tract
    • urinary tract
    • GI tract
    • Reproductive tract
    • blood
  11. What are the different modes of transmission
    • Direct contact (person to person)
    • indirect (personal contact with inanimate object, dressings, needles)
    • droplet (coughing sneezing, pneumonia, streplarger than 5mcg)
    • Airborne (coughing, sneezing, measles, variceela smaller than 5mcg)
    • vehicles (contaminated items, water, drugs, blood)
    • vector (flies, mosquito)
  12. what is a suspetible host
    degree of resistance to a pathogen. Factors that influence susceptibility include age, nutritional status, presence of chronic disease, trauma, smoking. Person does not become ill until they become susceptible to the number (dose) of microorganisms that are capable of producing the infection
  13. what are a person's natural defenses
    cilia, resident flora, skin
  14. what is the course of infection
    • Incubation period - interval b/t entracnce of pathogen and appearance of 1st symptom
    • prodromal period - interval from onset of nonspecific signs and symptoms to more specific symptoms. MO grow and multiply
    • illness - when client manifests signs and symptoms to specific type of infection
    • convalescence - interval when acute symptoms disappear
  15. what does a localized infection look like
    client experiences localized symptoms such as pain, tenderness, redness at wound site
  16. what does a systemic infection look like
    affects entire body insterad of just a single organ or part, can be fatal if left untreated
  17. What is normal flora
    MO that naturally reside on the skin, saliva, and oral mucosa, and GI and GU tract. Participate in maintaining health. Normal flora secrete antibacterial substances in GI tract. Skins normal flora exert a protective bactericidal action that kill organisms on the skin. Normal flora in mouth impair growth of invading microbes. Maintain a sensitive balance with other MO to prevent infection (c. diff happens when antibiotics wipe out or sterilize bacteria in gut)
  18. What are the body's system defenses
    body organs have unique defenses against MO. Each organ system has a defense mechanism physiologically suited to its specific structure and function. Ex = moist mucous membranes and cilia to move out cellular debris. skin is # 1 defense
  19. What is inflammation
    Body's cellular response to inury, infection, or irritation, a protective vascular reaction that delivers fluid, blood products, and nutrients to an area of inury. The process neutralizes and eliminates pathogens. Inflammatory response can be triggered by physical agents, chemical agents, MO
  20. What are the signs of a systemic infection
    increase in WBC, fever caused by phagocytic release of pyrogens from bacterial cells that cause rise in hypothalamic set point, and vomiting
  21. What is inflammatory exudate
    accumulation of fluid and dead tissue and RBCs form and exudate at the site of inflammation. Can be serous (clear, plasma like), sanguineous (containing RBCs) or purulent (containing WBCs and bacteria)
  22. What happens in tissue repair
    The damaged cells are replaced with healthy new cells. New cells undergo maturation until the same structural characteristic sand appearance as previous cells. If edema is chronic tissue may fill with granulation tissue which not as strong as tissue collagen but assumes the form of scar tissue
  23. What are nosocomial infections
    health care acquired infections
  24. How do you assess a client's suseptibility to infection?
    • look at defense mechanisms
    • susceptibility
    • knowledge of how infections are transmitted
    • review of disease and travel history
    • immunization and vaccination history
  25. What are the factors of a client's susceptibility to obtaining an infection
    • Age - infant and older adult more prone
    • nutritional status - inadequate diet reduces body's defenses against infections and impairs wound healing
    • stress - ATCH acts to increase serum glucose levels and decreased anti inflammatory responses thru release of cortisone (ex = meningitis with college students)
    • disease process (morbidity) - clients with immune system diseases are at increased risk for infection
    • Medical Therapy - drugs and medical therapies compromise immunity to infection. Anti inflammatory drugs cause protein breakdown and impair inflammatory response against bacteria and other pathogens
  26. What are some nursing diagnosis's related to infection
    • risk for infection
    • imbalanced nutrition: less than body requirements
    • impaired oral mucous membranes
    • risk for impaired skin integrity
    • social isolation
    • impaired tissue integrity
    • validate data
    • accuracy of diagnosis
  27. How does a person increase their defense against an infection
    through nutritional support, maintenance of physiological protective mechanisms, recommended immunizations
  28. What are the transmission categories
    • Airborne - droplet smaller than 5 mcg (measles varicella)
    • droplet - larger than 5 mcg (pneumonia, strep)
    • contact - direct client contact (MRSA)
    • protective - allogenenic hematopoietic stem cell transplants (protecting the client, private room with 12 or more air exchanges per hr)
  29. What are the types of protective environments?
    • Negative-pressure airflow prevents infections from flowing out of the room
    • positive-pressure used for highly susceptible immunocompromised clients
    • anteroom-adjoining room that contains hand hygiene and PPE
  30. When doffing PPE which is removed last
    • mask
    • gloves are removed first
    • gloves, eyewear, gown, mask
  31. When at the clients bedside are sterile procedures performed
    • insertion of IVs
    • suctioning the trach
    • inserting catheters
    • reapplying sterile dressings
Card Set
Unit 1
Unit 1