Biology Ch14

  1. population
    a group of individuals of the same species living in an area
  2. community
    two or more populations of different species living in the same area
  3. ecosystem
    a community interacting witht the physical aspects of their enviroment
  4. biosphere
    all the Earth's ecosystems
  5. survivorship curve
    plots the proportion of a population that survives to a certain age
  6. biotic potential
    innate capacity to reproduce under ideal conditions
  7. carrying capacity
    the density at which growth of a population ceases due to the limitation imposed by resources
  8. life history strategy
    the way an organism allocates energy to reproduction and day-to-day survival
  9. weeds strategy survival
    energy investment is in rapid reproduction with many offspring
  10. large animal stategy survival
    energy investment is in slower reproduction, larger bodies, and few offspring
  11. ecology of populations and communities
    the study of how groupsof organisms are distivuted in a particular area at a particular time and how they interact with other species coexisting in the same locale
  12. zero population growth
    in a population, the number of individuals gained is exactly equal to the number lost
  13. early-loss survivorship curve
    a plot of survivorship data indicating that most individual in a population die young
  14. late-loss survivorship curve
    a plot of survivorship data indicating that an organism's life expectancy decreases with each passing year
  15. life expectancy
    the maximum probable age an individual will reach
  16. fertility curve
    generally a graph that plots reproduction rate versus the age of female population members
  17. J-shaped curve
    a plot of population growth with an upsweeping curve that represents exponential growth
  18. exponential growth
    growth of a population without any constraints; hence, the population will grow at an ever-increasing rate
  19. S-shaped curved
    a plot of population with a flat section, a steeply rising section, and then a leveled off section that represents logistic growth
  20. logistic growth
    growth of a population under enviromental constraints that set a maximum population size
  21. agricultural capacity
    the transition of a group of people from an often nomadic hunter-gather way of life to a usually more settled life dependent on raising crops, such as wheat or corn, and on livestock; it was under way in the Middle East by 8,000 years ago
  22. industrial revolution
    the replacement of hand tools with power-driven machines (like the steam engine) and the concentration of idustry in factories beginning in England in the late 18th century
  23. demographic transition
    a changing patter from a high birth rate and high death rate to a low birth rate and low death rate
  24. age structure
    the number of individuals in each age group of a given population
  25. habitat
    the physical place within a species' range where an organism actually lives
  26. niche
    the role, function, or position of an organism in a biological community
  27. fundamental niche
    the potential range of all enviromental conditions under which an organism can thrive
  28. realized niche
    the part of the fundamental niche that a species actually occupies in nature
  29. interspecific competition
    competition for resources -e.g., food or space - between individuals of different species
  30. competitive exclusion
    a situation in which one species eliminates another through competition
  31. predator
    an organism, usually and animal, that obtains its food by eathing other living organisms
  32. prey
    living organisms that are food for other organisms
  33. predation
    the act of procurement and consumption of prey by predators
  34. camouflage
    body shapes, colors, or patterns that enable an organism to blend in with its environment and remain concealed from danger
  35. chemical warfare
    a defense strategy of prey species in which these organisms produce distateful oils or other toxic substances that kill or harm predators
  36. mimicry
    the evolution of similar appearance in two or more species, which often gives one or all protection; for example, a nonpoisonous species may evolve protection from predators by its similarity to a poisonous model
  37. parasite
    a type of predator that obtains benefits at the expense of another organism, its host; a parasite is usually smaller than its host, lives in close physical association with it, and gererally saps its host's strength rather than killing it outright
  38. commensalism
    a relationship between two species in which one species benefits and the other suffers no apparent harm
  39. mutualism
    a symbiotic relationship between two species in which both species benefit
  40. succession
    the process through which a regular progression of communities will regrow at a particular site
  41. pioneer community
    the species that are first to colonize a habitat after a disturbance such as fire, plowing, or logging
  42. transition community
    a community of organisms that establish themselves at a particular site basedupon conditions produced by the activities of the pioneer community
  43. climax community
    the most stable community in a habitat and one that tends to persist in the absence of a disturbance
  44. species richness
    the total number of species in a community
Card Set
Biology Ch14
ch14 ecology