________ predisposes a patient infections and stone
Stasis of Urine
____________ interferes with flow, destroys tissue, and predisposes to hydronephrosis
Congenital defects, Pregnancy, BPH, Tumors, Kidney Stones, Trauma pre-dispose patients to what?
Patience seek medical help when they present with what _______ clinical manifistations ( 3 possible)
Pain, Nausea and Vomiting, Hypertensionl Signs and Symptoms of Urinary Infectionl, Manifestations of Renal Dysfunction
History, Urinalysis, GFR, Radiological, IVP, Urography are used for what purpose?
Diagnosis of Renal/Kidney stones
What things would be done to treat a person with stones?
- Stone Removal
- Pain Control – IV narcotics
- Antibiotic Therapy – Risk for infection – Broad Spectrum
- Increased Fluid Intake – flush kidneys
- Strain the Urine
Fluid Intake, Dietary changes, Medications, Alteration of the pH of the urine are the best ways to what?
Renal parenchyma not exposed to bacteria, Downward flow, Gravity, Peristalsis, Distal valves of ureter, Sphincters at neck of bladder, Emptying of bladder are all good ways for what?
Prevention from infections
Women are more likely than me to get a urinary tract infection? T- F
True women have shorter ureaters
Why are the elderly more prone to infections?
Lack of fluids, incontinence for whatever reason invasive procedure’s such as catheters
Cystitis, Urethritis, Prostatitis, Pyelonephritis are examples of what?
Types of UTI based on their location
If a patient presents with Pain, Change in Micturation such as Frequency, Burning, Dysuria, Hesitancy, Urgency or any of the following symptoms Hematuria, GI Symptoms, N & V, Anorexia, Diarrhea, Abdominal discomfort, Paralytic Ileus, what would suspect is the problem?
What would be done to treat a UTI?
Antibiotics, Surgical Removal of Obstruction, Fluids
Best ways to prevent UTI? (4 possible)
- Decrease the use of Foleys
- Teaching – hygiene care
- Bladder training for Neurogenic Bladder
A nurse advises his female client to wipe from back to front since they can't reach behind what is more likely to happen?
Increased risk of UTI
If a patient presented with Back, Flank or Suprapubic Pain and any one or several of the folloing Clinical
Manifestations such as Hematuria, Cloudy Urinel, Urgency, or No symptoms what would you susspect is the problem?
What is Cystitis?
Urinary Bladder inflammation
How would you treat Cystitis? (5 possibe)
Analgesics, Antispasmodics, Antibiotics, Fluids, Heat
Follow up and prevention for Cystitis
Fluids, Encourage Frequent Voiding, Women, Follow-up
What is Acute Pyelonephritis?
Pyelonephritis is a kidney infection, usually from bacteria that have spread from the bladder can be life threatning
Renal disease, Trauma, Pregnancy, Metabolic diseases, Neurogenic bladder, Instrumentation during procedures , Ureterovesical reflux, Cystitis,Urinary Obstruction, Enteric Bacteria in Kidney, Blood infections, can lead to which complication?
Inflammatory Process, Swelling of the Renal Parenchyma, Patchy Distribution of Areas of Acute Infections, Swelling and Scarring of Infected Tissue, Abscess FormationTubular Necrosis, Atrophy where scar tissue has formed, Renal Failure if untreated (rare) are indication of what disease process
Complications of Acute Pyelonephritis are? (4 possible)
- Chronic Urinary Tract Infections
- Renal Insufficiency
- Renal Failure - rare
Clinical Manifestations of Acute Pyelonephritis are what?
- None - to Chills - Fever - Aching - Malaise
- Pain or Dull aching over back or at CVangle - Pyruria and Bacterurial - Changes in voiding patterns –Frequency,
- Hesitancy, Urgency, burning, dysuria, Casts and sediment in urine - Hematuria - GI symptoms
IV Antibiotics, IV Fluids, Analgesics for pain and discomfort, Antipyretics for fever, Evaluation of treatment and follow-up would be used to treat which disease process?
What is the difference in Etiology of Acute Pyelonephritis and Chronic Pyelonephritis?
- Chronic Recurrent Acute Pyelonephritis and Urinary Obstructions
- where as Acute is Renal disease, Trauma, Pregnancy, Metabolic diseases, Neurogenic bladder, Instrumentation during procedures , Ureterovesical reflux, Cystitis,Urinary Obstruction, Enteric Bacteria in Kidney, Blood infection
Clinical Manifestations of Chronic Pyelonephritis may include?
- May be similar to Acute Pyelonephritis
- Excessive Thirst
- Weight Loss
Would the following treatments be for Accute or Chronic Pyelonephritis?
Treatment for Obstruction
Treatment maybe ongoing
–Blood counts - WBC