Patho chapter 5

  1. Programmed cell death is referred to as
  2. Carcinoma refers to tumors of the
    epithelial tissue
  3. How could a diagnosis of maligenancy be confirmed?
  4. All of the follwing viruses are expected human oncogens excpet

    A. measles
  5. Anaplasia refers to

    D. lack of differentiation
  6. Which of the following mean conversion of normal cell to cancerous cell growth?

    A. transformation
  7. Which of the following could predispose a person to neoplasia?
    1. immunosuppression
    2. prolonged hormone replacement therapy
    3. chromosomal abnormalities
    4. exposure to radiation
    5. dyplastic tissue changes
    All of them
  8. Which tumors are encapsulated?
  9. Which of the following statements apply to metastases?

    C. Indicate a poorer prognosis than when they have not developed
  10. The goal of pallative treatment of cancer is

    D. alleviate symptoms and prevent complications
  11. Disease of growth and cell differentiation
  12. Process by which a normal cell becomes a cancer cell
  13. Mass of new cells that grow in a haphazard fashion
  14. Non cancerous tumors
    Contains differentiated cells
  15. Cancer
    tumors with undifferentiated cells
  16. Malignant tumors of the epithelial cells
  17. Malignant tumors of the CT
  18. Study of malignant tumors
  19. Which tumor has the following characteristics:
    Small cells, similar to normal cells
    Slow growing, encapsulated
    Do not metastasize, and do not return after removal of entire tumor
  20. Which tumor has the following characteristics:
    Large irregular cells with large nuclei
    Lacks form, not encapsulated
  21. Movement of cancer cells from one part of the body to another
  22. Development of new capillaries in a tumor
    Promotes tumor development
  23. Neoplastic cells in a pre-invasive state of cancer
    In Situ
  24. Describe tumor grade 1
    • resemble cells of origin
    • well differentiated
  25. Describe tumor grade 2
    • Increase in mitosis
    • More variation in size and shape/cells starting to become differentiated
  26. Describe tumor grade 3
    • Very rapid growth
    • Cells are even less like origin cells
  27. Describe tumor grade 4
    • Poorly Differentiated
    • No resemblance to origin cell
  28. Cancer is the ____ most common cause of death in the US
  29. What are the early signals of cancer
    • Change in bowl or bladder habits
    • A sore that doesn't heal
    • Unusual bleeding or discharge
    • Thickening or lumps
    • Indigestion or hard time swallowing
    • Obvious change in wart or mole
    • Nagging cough or hoarsness
  30. What are signs and symptoms of a tumor?
    • Pain
    • Obstruction
    • weight loss
    • anemia
    • systemic infections
    • bleeding
    • paraneopolastic syndromes
  31. When a tumor stimulates the excessive production of hormones
    paraneoplastic syndrome
  32. What diagnostic test are used for malignant tumors?
    • CBC-looking for anemia
    • X-ray, MRI, Ultrasound, CT scan
    • Tumor markers
    • Biopsy/microscopic exam
  33. Cells that are identical to the primary tumor, but have spread
    Secondary tumor
  34. Local spread of tumor
    Infecting nearby healthy tissue
  35. Spread of a tumor by blood or lymphatic channels to a distant site
  36. Spread of a tumor by body fluids or along membranes
    Usually in a body cavity
  37. Typically where does the first metastasis appear?
    lymph nodes
  38. What are two areas of the body that are common secondary sites of metastasis
    Lungs and Liver
  39. What is the etiology of malignant tumors?
    • carcinogenesis
    • Changes in DNA
  40. What are the 3 genes known to be involved in growth and development replication
    • Proto-Oncogenes
    • Tumor suppressor genes
    • genes that control apoptosis
  41. cancer causing genes
  42. Mutations in __________ genes will cause the formation of oncogenes
    proto- oncogenes
  43. How are proto-oncogenes converted to oncogenes?
    they become activated
  44. Inhibits the proliferation of cells in a tumor
    anti-oconogenes(tumor suppresor cells)
  45. What are the 3 stages of transforming a normal cell to a cancer cell
    • Initiation
    • Promotion
    • Progresssion
  46. normal cell is exposed to an initiator/carcinogen
    DNA becomes damaged
    Cell still functions normally
  47. Give examples of Initiators
    • Chemicals-benzopyrene
    • Radiation
    • Oncogenic Viruses which contain V-myc
  48. Initiated cells come in contact with promoter and cell losses growth regualtion
  49. Can a promoter by itself cause tumor foramtion?
    no, there has to be exposure to an initiator and prolonged exposure to the promoter
  50. Treatment for cancer
    • surgery
    • radiation therapy
    • chemotherapy with antineoplastic agents
    • immunotherapy
    • pallative-ease signs and symptoms
Card Set
Patho chapter 5
Patho chapter 5