General Tower

    CFR PART 91.111
    • No person may operate an aircraft so close to another aircraft as to create a collision hazard.
    • No person may operate an a/c in formation flight except by arrangement with the pilot.
    • No person may operate an a/c, carrying passengers for hire, in formation flight.
  2. CFR part 91.113
    Right of way rules CFR
  3. Right of way rules GENERAL
    vigilance shall be maintained by each person operation an a/c so as to see and avoid other a/c.
  4. right of way rules
    an a/c in distress has the right of way over all other air traffic.
  5. Right of way rules
    • the a/c to the other's right, has the right of way.
    • If the a/c are of different categories:
    • A ballon has the right of way over any other cat of a/c, glider over airship, a/c towing or refueling other a/c has the right of way over all other ENGINE DRIVEN a/c.
  6. right of way rules
    head on
    each a/c shall alter course to the right
  7. right of way rules
    a/c being overtaken has right of way, and pilot of an overtaking a/c shall alter course to the right to pass well clear.
  8. right of way rules
    • a/c on final approach to land or while landing, have the RoW over other a/c in flight or operation on the surface.
    • when 2 or more a/c are approaching an airport for the purpose of landing, the a/c at the lower alt has the RoW, but it shall not take advantage of this rule to cut in front.
  9. Handling of VIP a/c
    • priority is no normally given to vip a/c, may be give consideration to such a/c rovided safety of other is not affected.
    • Every effort should be made to provide updated ETA's to interested parties.
  10. Aircraft speed CFR
    CFR part 91.117
  11. aircraft speed
    • below 10,000 feet msl 250kts
    • below 2,500 feet above the primary surface within 4 nm of the primary airport of a class C or D area, 200kts.
    • class B area 200kts
    • min safe speed for flight
  12. aircraft speed
    • Military operatinal area's
    • Safe maneurvablity
    • Published routes
    • Exercises (large scale)
    • Drug interdiction
    • Restricted airspace
  13. Minimum Safe altitudes CFR
    CFR part 91.119
  14. minimum safe altitudes
    an altitude allowing an emergency landing without undue hazard to persons or property on the surface
  15. minimum safe altitudes
    over congested areas
    an altitude of 1,000 feet above the highest obstacle within a horizontal radius of 2,000 feet of the a/c
  16. minimum safe altitudes
    over other then congested areas
    an altitude of 500 feet agl, except over open water or sparsely populated areas.
  17. aerobatic flight
    • an intentional maneuver involving an abrupt change in alt, intentionally performed spins, or other maneuvers requiring pitch/dive angles greater than 45 degrees, or accelerations greater then 2g's. A break is not a aerobatic flight.
    • CNO does not desire to discourage or curtail aerobatic training; however, it is of the utmost importance that aerobatic training be well reulated as to TIME, PLACE, and CONDITIONS.
  18. aerobatic flight maneuvers shall not be performed:
    • if prohibited by the natops manual or other directives applicable to a particular model a/c
    • Over any congested area or city.
    • within 4nm of the centerline of any federal airway.
    • Within the lateral boundaries of class B, C, D, and E surfaces areas.
    • Below an alt of 1,500 feet above the surface.
    • When flight visibility is less than 3 statute miles.
  19. Operations in class D airspace CFR
    CFR 91.129
  20. Operations in class D airspace
    must establish 2 way radio comms with the ATC facility prior to entering that airspace
  21. Operations in Class D airspace
    radio fails vfr
    • Wx conditions are at or above basic VFR wx mins.
    • Visual contact with the tower is maintained, and'
    • A clearance to land is received.
  22. IFR operations 2 way comm failure CFR
    CFR 91.185
  23. IFR operations 2 way comm failure
    vfr conditions
    shall continue the flight under VFR and land as soon as practicable
  24. IFR operations 2 way comm failure
    ifr condtions
    • Assigned assigned EFC
    • Vector minimum on RTE ETA
    • Expected expected
    • Flight plan
  25. Altitude assignment CFR
    CFR part 91.159
  26. altitude assignment
    Except while in a holding pattern of 2 min or less, or while turning
  27. altitude assignment
    ifr exceptions
    • controlled airspace "VFR conditions on top"
    • uncontrolled airspace- except while holding in a holding pattern of 2 min or less, or while turning.
  28. ATC Servie
    • The primary purpose of the ATC system is to prevent a collision between a/c operation in the system and to organize and expedite the flow of traffic, and to provide support for National Security and Homeland defense.
    • Consistent with the aformentioned conditions, controllers must provide additional service procedures to teh extent permitted by higher priority duties and other circumstances.
  29. Duty Priority
    Give first priority to separating a/c and issuing safety alerts as required in this order. Good judgment must be used in prioritizing all other provisions of this order based on the requirements of the stiuation at hand.
  30. Provide support to national security and homeland defense activites to include, but not be limited to;
    • reporting of suspicious and/or unusual aircraft/pilot activities
    • Provide additional services to the extent possible contingent only upon higher priority duties and other factors including limitaions of radar, VOLUME of TRAFFIC, FREQUENCY CONGESTION, and WORKLOAD.
  31. Procedural Preference
    • Use automation procedures in preference to nonautomation procedures when workload, communications, and wquipment capabilities permit.
    • Use radar separation in preference to nonradar sep
    • Use nonradar separation in preference to radar sep when the situation dictates.
  32. Operational priority
    • Provide air traffic control service to a/c on a first come first servied basis as circumstances permit except the following:
    • SAR
    • IFR
  33. Expeditious Compliance
    • Use the word IMMEDIATELY only when expeditious compliance is required to avoid an imminent situation.
    • Use the word EXPEDITE only when prompt compliance is required to avoid the development of an imminent situation.
  34. Safety Alert
    • Issue a safety alert to an a/c if you are aware the a/c is in a position/altitude which, in your judgment, places it in unsafe proximity to terrain, obstructions, or other a/c.
    • Once the alert is issued it is solely the pilots preogative
  35. Control Transfer
    • Fix
    • Location
    • Alt
    • Time
  36. Transfer control of an a/c only:
    after eliminating any potential conflict with other a/c.
  37. Assume control of an a/c only :
    after it is in your area of jurisdiction unless specifically coordinated or per LOA.
  38. Radio Comms
    • Fix
    • Alt
    • Time
  39. Wake Turbulence
    • apply wake turbulence procedures to a/c operation behind heavy jets/b757s and, where indicated, to small a/c behind large a/c.
    • The separation minima must continue to touchdown for all IFR a/c.
  40. Wake turbulence cautionary advisories
    Issue WT cautionary advisories and the position, altitude if know, and direction of flight of the heavy jet or B757
  41. Bird activity information
    • Species
    • Position
    • Altitude
    • Course
    • every 15min
  42. Supervisory notification
    • Special flights/operations
    • Weather
    • Equipment status
    • Emergency situations
    • Potential sector overload
    • Possible suspicious a/c
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General Tower
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