1. What are the most important minerals stored in bones?
    Calcium and Phosphorus
  2. A round or oval opening in a bone is called a:
  3. A fracture common in osteoporatic bones is:
    Compression Fracture
  4. The Greater Trochanter is located on the:
  5. Which type of membrane contains fluid between the visceral and parietal layers?
    Serous Membrane
  6. What is the only dry membrane?
    Cutaneous Membrane
  7. What are dermal papillae?
    Fingerlike projections of the dermis into the epidermis.
  8. What are glycoprotiens?
    Substances that make the cell sticky or fuzzy.
  9. What are Microvilli?
    Projections that increase the surface area of the cell.
  10. What are the 2 types of passive transport?
    • Diffusion
    • Filtration
  11. 2 Types of Endocytosis:
    • Phagocytosis
    • Pinocytosis
  12. A solution that contains fewer solutes than the cell is:
  13. Phases of Cell Cycle:
    • Interphase
    • Prophase
    • Metaphase
    • Anaphase
    • Telophase
  14. Where is reticular connective tissue found?
    • Lymph nodes
    • Spleen
    • Bone Marrow
  15. What are the main elements in the body?
    • Carbon
    • Hydrogen
    • Oxygen
    • Nitrogen
  16. Correct sequence of organization in the human body:
    • Chemical
    • Cellular
    • Tissue
    • Organ
    • Organ System
    • Organism
  17. What is a Greenstick Fracture?
    Cracking of the bone without actual separation of parts. Common in children.
  18. What is a Comminuted fracture?
    Fracture where bone fragments into many pieces.
  19. What does the Dorsal Cavity contain?
    • Cranial Cavity
    • Vertebral Canal
  20. What does the Ventral Cavity contain?
    • Thoracic Cavity
    • Abdominopelvic Cavity
  21. What are the 4 types of energy?
    • Chemical
    • Electrical
    • Mechanical
    • Radiant
  22. What is chemical energy and how is it created?
    The type of energy found in the body, created when bonds are broken.
  23. What is mechanical energy?
    Involved in movement - matter and the body.
  24. What is an atom and what are the 3 types?
    Building block of matter.

    • Protons
    • Neutrons
    • Electrons
  25. What is the Atomic Number?
    Number of protons in an atom.
  26. What is atomic mass?
    Number of protons and neurtrons.
  27. What is an isotope?
    • Different number of neutrons
    • Same number of protons
  28. What is atomic weight?
    Close to the mass number of the most abundant isotope of the atom.
  29. What is an electron shell called when isn't filled?
  30. What is an electron shell called when it is filled?
  31. 3 Types of chemical bonds:
    • 1. Ionic
    • 2. Covalent
    • 3. Hydrogen
  32. What are ionic bonds?
    Electrons completely transfer from one atom to another
  33. What are covalent bonds?
    Electrons are shared between 2 atoms.
  34. What are hydrogen bonds?
    Weakest chemical bond.
  35. What is an Ion?
    Atom that has an electrical charge
  36. What are the 2 types of ions?
    • Cations - Positive
    • Anions - Negative
  37. What is a reactant?
    Starting material that undergoes a change during a chemical reaction.
  38. What is a product?
    The result of a chemical reaction.
  39. What is synthesis?
    2 or more molecules bond to form a more complex structure.

    A + B = AB
  40. What is decomposition?
    Bonds of a molecule break to form simpler molecules.

    AB > A + B
  41. What is an exchange reaction?
    Molecules change position as bonds are broken.

    AB + CD > AC + BD
  42. What is a reversible reaction?
    Product that an change back to its orginal state

    A + B <> AB
  43. What is an acid?
    Electrolyte that releases hydrogen ions.

  44. What is a base?
    Substances that combine with hydrogen ions.

  45. pH Scale
    0 - 6 = Acid

    7 = Neutral

    8 - 14 = Base/Alkaline
  46. What do electrolytes do?
    Release ions in water.
  47. What is the pH of blood?
    7.35 - 7.45
  48. What is Alkalosis and what are the symptoms?
    Blood pH of 7.5 - 7.8

    Symptoms: Agitated and Dizzy
  49. What is Acidosis and its symptoms?
    Blood pH of 7.0 - 7.3

    Symptoms: Disoriented and Fatigued
  50. What is a buffer?
    A chemical that resists a pH change.
  51. How are salts formed?
    As a reaction between acids and bases
  52. What are Organic Molecules and some Examples?
    Anything that contains Carbon and Hydrogen.


    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids
    • Protiens
    • Nucleic Acids
  53. What are inorganic molecules and some examples?
    Don't contain carbon.


    • Salts
    • Water
    • Acids
    • Bases
  54. What is a phospholipid bilayer?
    Heads are hydrophillic and love water

    Tails are hydrophobic and hate water
  55. What are monosaccharides?
    Simple Sugars:

    • Glucose
    • Fructose
    • Galactose
  56. What are disaccharides?
    2 Simple Sugars:

    • Glucose + Fructose = Sucrose
    • Glucose + Galactose = Lactose
    • Glucose + Glucose = Maltose
  57. What are polysaccharides?
    Complex sugars:

    • Glycogen
    • Cellulose
  58. What are lipids?
    Fats that are nonsoluable in water, but soluable in organic solvents.
  59. What are protiens made of?
    Amino Acids
  60. What are nucleic acids and what do they do?
    5 carbons sugars that control cell activities.
  61. What makes up DNA/RNA?
    Nucleotide Bases such as:

    • Adenonine
    • Guanine
    • Cytosine
    • Thymine
    • Uracil
  62. 3 parts of a cell:
    • Nucleus
    • Cytoplasm
    • Cell Membrane
  63. What is histology?
    Study of tissues
  64. What are ribosomes?
    Organelle made of protien and located in the cytoplasm and rough ER.
  65. What is rough ER?
    Organelle that hold Ribosomes.
  66. What is smooth ER?
    Organelle that makes cholesterol and detoxifies the body.
  67. What is the Golgi Apparatus?
    Organelle that modifies and packages protiens, and creates secretory vescicles.
  68. What is the mitochondria?
    Organelle that supplies energe to the cell.
  69. What is a lysosome?
    Sac that contains enzymes and eats things up in the cell.
  70. What does a peroxisome do?
    Detoxify harmful chemicals.
  71. What are centrioles?
    Rod shaped bodies of microtubules within the cell.
  72. What does cilia do?
    move things across the cell surface
  73. What unit are cells measured in?
    • Micormeters
    • 1/1000 of a meter
  74. 3 Regions of the Nucleus
    • Nuclear Membrane
    • Chromatin
    • Nucleolus
  75. What is cytoplasm?
    Liquid part of cytosol, located outside of nucleus.
  76. What is active transport?
    Transport that uses energy.
  77. What is passive transport?
    Transport that doesn't use energy.
  78. What are the 3 types of diffusion?
    • Osmosis
    • Simple diffiusion
    • Facilitated
  79. What is osmosis?
    Diffusion of water.
  80. What is simple diffusion?
    Requires no help.
  81. What is facilitated diffusion?
    Requires help, but no energy.
  82. What is filtration?
    Solutes forced through a membrane by fluid or Hydrostatic pressure
  83. What is an isotonic solution?
    Solution that has the same osmotic pressure as body fluids.
  84. What is a hypertonic solution?
    Solution that has a higher osmotic pressure than body fluids.
  85. What is a hyptonic solution?
    Solution that has a lower osmotic pressure than body fluids
  86. What are the 2 active transport processes?
    • 1. solute pumping
    • 2. bulk transport
  87. How is solute pumping energized?
    By ATP
  88. 3 types of Bulk Transport
    • Endocytosis
    • Exocytosis
    • Transcytosis
  89. What does endocytosis do?
    Take things into the cell
  90. What are the 2 types of endocytosis?
    • phagocytosis - eats
    • pinocytosis - drinks
  91. What is exocytosis?
    Moving things out of the cell
  92. What is transcytosis?
    Moving things across the cell
  93. What happens during Prophase?
    Chromatin becomes chromasomes
  94. What happens during metaphase?
    Chromosomes align in the middle.
  95. What happens during Anaphase?
    Chromosomes separate and pull towards the end of the cell
  96. What happens in telophase?
    Forms 2 daughter nuclei
  97. 4 types of body tissue:
    • Epithelial
    • Connective
    • Nervous
    • Muscle
  98. How is epithelium classified?
    # of layers

  99. 3 shapes of tissues:
    Squamous - flat

    Cubodial - cub

    Columnar - column
  100. What tissue lines body cavaties?
    Simple Squamous
  101. What tissue is common in glands and lines walls of kidneys and ovaries?
    Simple cubodial
  102. What tissue lines the digestive tract and produces mucous?
    Simple columnar
  103. What tissue lines the mouth, skin and esophagus?
    Stratified Squamous
  104. What is transitional epithelium?
    Shape of cells depend on stretch of tissue, like the urinary tract.
  105. What type of gland is ductless?
  106. What kind of gland has ducts?
  107. 3 Types of connective tissue:
    • Blood
    • Bone
    • Cartilage
  108. What is bone made of?
    Oseous tissue
  109. What kind of connective tissue supports the ear?
    Elastic Cartilage
  110. What type of connective tissue are vertebral discs made of?
  111. 2 types of dense connective tissue:
    • Tendons - connect muscle to bone
    • Ligaments - connect bone to bone
  112. How does epitheleal and fibrous tissues repair themselves?
  113. How does skeletal tissue repair itself?
  114. How does cardiac muscle and nervous tissue repair themselves?
    Poorly, forms scar tissue.
  115. 3 types of epitheleal membranes:
    • Cutaneous
    • Mucous
    • Serous
  116. What is the cutaneous membrane?
    Dry membrane of the skin.
  117. What is a mucous membrane?
    Membrane that lines all body cavities that open to the exterior
  118. What is a serous membrane?
    Lines body cavities that are closed to the surface.
  119. What are the 3 specific serous membranes?
    • Peritoneum
    • Pleura
    • Pericardium
  120. What are the 2 layers of the dermis?
    • Papillary
    • Reticular
  121. Determinants of critical burns:
    Over 25% has 2nd degree burns

    Over 10% has 3rd degree burns

    3rd degree burns on face, hands or feet
  122. What is a basal cell carcinoma?
    Least malignant of skin cancer
  123. What is a squamous cell carcinoma?
    Carcinoma of the lymph nodes that arises from the stratum spinosm
  124. ABCD Rule
    • Assymmetry
    • Border Irregularity
    • Color
    • Diameter
Card Set
AP Midterm