Food prep fat and oils

  1. Shortening
    a fat that tenderizes or shortens the texture of baked products by impeding gluten development making them softer and easier to chew
  2. emulsion
    a luquid dispersed in another liquid with which it is usually immiscible
  3. sufactant
    • surface active agent that reduces a luquid ssurface tension to increase its wetting and blending ability
    • acts as a bridge between oil and water
    • draw water and oil together
  4. polymorphism
    the capability of solid fats to change into several crystalline forms, each with its own melting point, cyrstal structure, and solubility
  5. clarified butter
    butter whose milk solids and water have been removed and thus will not burn
  6. superglycerinated
    shortening that has had mono and diglycerides added for increased plasticity
  7. winterizing
    a commercial process that removes the fatty acids having a tendency to crystallize and make vegetable oils appear cloudy
  8. hydrogenatin
    a commercial process in which hydrogen atoms are added to the double bonds in mono unsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids to make them mor saturated
  9. interesterification
    a commercial process that rearranges fatty acids on the glycerol molecule in order to produce fat with a smoother consistency
  10. smoke point
    the temperature at which fat or oil begins t smoke
  11. flash point
    the temperature at which tiny wisps of fire streak to the surface of a heated substance such as oils 600f
  12. fire point
    temperature whcih a heated substance such as oil bursts into flames and burns for at least 5 seconds 700f
  13. polymerization
    a process in which free fatty acids link together especially when overheated resulting in a gummy dark residue and an oil that is mor viscous and prone to foaming
  14. flaver reversion
    the breakdown oxidation of an essential fatty acid linolenic acid, found in certain vegetable flavor change prior to the start of actual rancidity
  15. fat and oils
    give flavor,color texture, mouthfeel
  16. chemical configeration
    lenght and degree of saturatin of three fatty acids on the glycerol molecule of a tryglyceride
  17. heat transfer
    fat is a medium that transfers heat to foods without burning them
  18. Shortening power
    hogly saturated fats have mor shortening power
  19. 2 types of emulsion
    • oil in water: oil droplets thoughout water most are this type, milk,cream eggs, yolk
    • water in oil: water dispersed throughout oil less common food emulsions, butter margarine
  20. 3 parts to an emulsion
    • dispersed or dicontinuous phase usually oil
    • dispersion or continuous phase most likely water based
    • emulsifier a stabilizer that keeps on phase dispersed in the other
  21. emulsifier
    a stabilizer that keeps one phase dispersed in the other
  22. mono-diglycerides
    most commoly used increase emulsion stability dough strenght ,volume, texture, and tolerance of ingredients to processing
  23. phospholipids
    • lecithin from egg yolks
    • milk protein , soy protein , gelatin
  24. temporary emulsions
    • least viscous and stable
    • seperates out when left alone
    • oil and vinegar
  25. semi permeanent emulsions
    • intermediat viscosity
    • tendency to separate decreased with stabilizers
    • italian dressing
  26. permanent emuslions
    • very viscous and stable
    • vegetable oil, egg yolk , or lemon
  27. melting point
    • depends of degree of saturation
    • cis-trans configuration
  28. plasicity
    ability to hold shape but still be molded under light pressure
  29. solubility
    • fats are not soluble in water
    • will dissolve in organic compounds
  30. flavor
    absorb fat soluble flavor compounds from other foods
  31. texture
    • smooth rich mouthfeel , tenderness volume
    • lubricating action moistens food
  32. appearance
    • appearance of food is improve by pigments in natural fat
    • milk would be chalky white or bluish
    • fat gives butter attractive color
  33. satiety
    • induces a sence of fullness
    • delays onset of hunger pangs longe to digest and delays stomach emptying
  34. butter
    • made from the cream of unhomogenized milk
    • 80% milk fat
  35. marganine
    • same calore content as butter but fat souces differ and low fat version ar available
    • soy bean, corn, safflower,canola. partially hydrogenated oils
    • whipped
    • light
  36. shortenings
    • plant oils that have been hydrogenated to make solid and pliable
    • soy bean major source
  37. oils
    • derived from a variety od seeds, fruits, nuts
    • vegetable oil
    • fruit oil
    • nut oil
  38. extraction of oils
    • cold pressed: seeds mechanically pressed against a press
    • expeller pressed: squeezing seeds at very high temp
    • Chemical solvents: removing oils with solvent
  39. Refining
    • removes impurites that can adversely affect flavor color smoke point , shelf life
    • oil is 99.5 pure
    • 5 steps
    • degumming
    • neutralizing
    • washing and drying
    • bleaching
    • deoderizing
  40. unrefined oils
    strong aroma and flavor, low smoking point, hogh nutrietn contetn prone to rancidity
  41. refined oils
    neutral , low aroma , blend flavored hogh smoke point
  42. olive oil
    hogh unsaturated fat content lower is better reduces rick of cornary disease
  43. tropical oils
    • coconut palm
    • longer shelf life higher saturated fat, less pronte to rancidity linke to heart disease
  44. lard
    • fat from swine major shortening used in early 1900s
    • primarly saturated must be reduced
  45. tallow
    • from beef cattle or sheep
    • primarly saturated must be reduced
  46. suet
    • solid fat around kidneys and loin of beef and sheep
    • primarly saturated
    • must be reduced
  47. fat substitutes
    • physically resemble fats
    • lipid based
    • replace fat on a weight to weight basis
    • dubplicat funitonal properties of fat
  48. fat mimetics
    • water soluble
    • protein or carbs based
    • imitatie mouthfeel of fat
  49. fat analogs
    • have the characteristics of fat
    • fewer calores
    • altered digestibility
  50. fat extenders
    • optimize fat functionality
    • less fat is required
  51. fat replacers
    • made from a range of ingredients including
    • synthetic fat
    • micropratculated protein
    • startch f\
    • fiber
    • dried gruit puree
  52. CHO based fat replacers
    • most replaces based on carbohydrates
    • fiber, gums, pectin. cellulose. staches. wate.
    • more than half calores
    • higher in sugar
    • opacity of fat
    • fruits
  53. protein based replacers
    • fewer calories than fat
    • milk whey or egg protein
    • somplesse
  54. lipid based replacers
    • created through chemical midification of fat, fewer calores thatn fat
    • involve inhibiting absorption
    • shortening the lenght of the fat
    • fat extenders using water
    • olestra
    • undigested
    • prevents absorption of vitamina A&E diarrhea cramps gas
  55. heat transfer
    • few fat replacers can reproduce heat transfer the way fat does
    • frying saueting
    • stir gry
    • pan
    • deep
  56. frying car
    • understand optimal frying tmep
    • uses recommended equip
  57. cna any fat be used for frying
    • not all fat hogh temp of 350-450f
    • 100% fat
    • vegerable , hydrogenated shortening
  58. controlling temp of frying
    • avoid too low temp
    • excessif fat
    • perfect browning
  59. recommended equipment
    • staniless stell
    • iron copper alloys increase rancidity
    • clean hoods
    • reduce surface area = higher smoking point
    • narrow containers
  60. optimal frying conditions
    • avoid water
    • avoid particles
    • cool frying fat immediatly
    • store in air tight
    • discard used frying fat when oil darker and viscous
  61. storage
    • depend o butter and margarine
    • regreigerate
    • shortening and oils
    • room temp
  62. rancidity
    • chemical deterioration of a fats causing off flavor or odors
    • hydolytic: rancidity caused by esposure to water
    • oxidative: exposure to oxygen in air
    • hoghe degrees of unsaturatin incrases chance
    • add vitamin e and ce lcithn to avoid rancidity
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Food prep fat and oils
food prep