Biology 3-2

  1. HIV and AIDs
    • Human Immunodeficiency Virus
    • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
  2. Acquired
    Not inherited, caused by exposure to some agent
  3. Immunodeficiency
    • Loss of immune system
    • inability to fight of infectious disease
  4. Syndrome
    Set of symptoms
  5. What makes HIV and AIDs so deadly?
    • HIV invades and kills helper t cells
    • Sometimes helper t cells are called CD4 cells or Tcells
  6. Process of Translation DNA to proteins
    • transcriptions translation
    • DNA---------------------------RNA-----------------------Protein
    • Transcription- transcribe (copy) DNA to RNA
    • Translation- translate RNA to a protein
  7. Normal Course of HIV infection- New Infection
    • Entering a bunch of the helper t cells and copying then killing all the helper t cells
    • After 25 days anti-bodies start to arrive
    • Brand new HIV is very infectious
    • Feel like you have the flu
    • Helper t cell court is dropping
    • HIV virus is replicating rapidly
  8. Normal Course of HIV infection- Asymptomatic Phase
    • Helper t cells are up
    • Little or any detectable virus to blood
    • Lots of circulating antibodies
    • No symptoms
  9. What is a dormant helper t cell?
    HIV is present in non-hiv (dormant) CD4 helper t cells not just HIV helper t cells
  10. HIV Infects dormant helper t cells
    • Anti HIV antibodies cant defect the virus in these cells. So its hidden from the immune system
    • Blood load is low or non detectable but virus is put gone
    • A person cannot get no HIV
  11. When an agent that is specific for a non-HIV helper t-cell that is harboring the HIV comes along...
    • The dormant cell becomes active and transcribes its DNA along with the viral DNA
    • New virus is made
    • Always coming encounter with stuff so helper t cells keep being made which means more virus
  12. Opportunistic Infections
    Yeast infections, sores, diarrhea, swollen lymph nodes, fevers, and cough
  13. AIDS- Defining infection
    • Only old people get or people with AIDs get
    • Helper t cell low count
    • Person has AIDs defining infection
    • Person dies of infection not HIV intself
  14. AZT
    • Reverse transcription inhibiter
    • Goes through and sticks it to the RNA just like the nucleotides. But this doesnt make DNA which leads to not making new viruses.
  15. Natural Selection
    • Natural variations in thing, based on the premiss that there is natural genetic variations in things.
    • Some traits inherited give an advantage that helps someone with a trait of survival.
  16. HIV involves resistance to AZT
    • Doesnt think its a nucleotide anymore so it goes on to make DNA with HIV
    • Now a days 50-60% are already resistant to AZT
  17. Combination Drug Therapy
    • Start with different variants of HIV particles
    • Combination drug therapy reduces replication and survival of all variants
    • New mutants are uncommon
    • To avoid the 5 drugs it would have to make resistant to all 5 drugs
  18. Problems with Combination drug therapy
    • Lots of side affects
    • Take drugs to combat the side affects
    • Cost of drugs
    • Controls your life, so many pills, so many things you have to do with pills, take them at the right time every day.
  19. Status of Vaccine
    • Everything they have tried has failed
    • Vaccine that works in monkeys, inject a line virus but its non pathogenetic which wont hurt you
    • Afraid they will give someone AIDs by giving them the vaccine
  20. AIDs today
    • Have to report to state if you have
    • Sexual contact biggest transport of it
    • DC- 3% of people HIV positive. 6.5% of AA males are HIV positive
    • 2007- 33 million have it
    • Newly infected 2.7 million
    • AIDs death in 2007 2 million
Card Set
Biology 3-2
bio 3-2