Clinical Chemistry

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  1. Compounds containing C, H, and O. Major food source and supplier of energy. Stored primarily as glycogen in liver and muscle cells.
  2. Simple sugars. Cannot be hydrolyzed to simpler form.
    Examples: gluclose, fructose, and galactose.
  3. Two monosacharides linked together by glycosidic bond. Can be hydrolyzed into monosacharides. Examples: maltose, lactose and sucrose
  4. What are 3 examples of reducing substances?
    • Gluclose
    • Maltose
    • Fructose
    • Lactose
    • Galactose
  5. What are two pathways in gluclose metabolism?
    Ketone and Aldehyde
  6. What are two forms of carbohydrate?
    Aldose and Ketose
  7. What must a carbohydrate contain to be considered a reducing agent?
    Aldehyde or a ketone group
  8. Formation of gluclose-6-phospate from noncarbohydrate sources.
  9. Metabolism of gluclose molecule to pyruvate or lactate production of energy.
  10. Breakdown of glycogen to gluclose for use as energy
  11. Conversion of gluclose to glycogen for storage.
  12. Primary hormonen responsible for the entry of gluclose into the cell.
  13. When is insulin normally released?
    Insulin is released when gluclose levels are high and is not released when gluclose levels are decreased.
  14. Primary hormone responsible for increasing gluclose levels.
  15. Produced by the adrenal medulla, increases plasma gluclose by inhibiting insulin secretion, increasing glycogenolysis and promoting lipolysis. Epiphering is released during times of stress.
  16. A group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both.
    Diabetes mellitus
  17. Characterized by hyperglycemia as a result of an individual's resistance to insulin with an insulin secretory defect. Characteristics usually include adult onset of the disease with milder symptoms than type 1. Increased risk with increase in age, obesity, and lack of physical exercise.
    Type 2 diabetes
  18. What is the preferred screening test for diagnosising diabetes?
    Measument of the fasting gluclose level.
  19. Cause of failure to thrive syndrome in infants, is congenital deficiency of one or three enzymes involved in galactose metabolism, resulting in increased levels of galactose in plasma.
Card Set
Clinical Chemistry
Carbs and enzymes
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