1. What are the 2 primary approaches to science. and give an example of each
    • 1.Discovery/Observational- scientific theory based on observation
    • (Mendel peas usually look alike in a garden but not always)

    • 2. Hypothesis-driven/Expermental- testable observation
    • (Mendal grew 30,000 pea plants and found them to have different colors and shapes)
  2. 5 steps to scientific method:
  3. Describe
    Louis Pasteur experiment on the source of living material using the 5 step of
    the scientific method:
    • 1. Observation-bacteria spoils milk
    • 2. Question-do cells arise from other cells.
    • 3. Hypothesis-All cells from cells
    • 4. Experiment-Pasteur had to treatment groups a broth that was exposed to preexisting cells
    • and one that wasn’t.
    • 5. Conclusion-cells formed due to preexisting
    • cells not from nonliving material
  4. What's the difference between hypothesis and prediction
    1. Hypothesis: a proposed explanation

    • 2. Prediction: Something that can be
    • tested and is correct if the hypothesis is valid
  5. What is Cell Theory?
    Cells form from other cells, and are a fundamental unit of structure, function and organization in all living organisim
  6. What is the Theory of Evolution
    • All species are connected by common
    • ancestry.
  7. Who was responsible for the Theory of
    Evolution by Natural Selection?
    Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace
  8. What are the 2 requirements for Natural Selection?
    • 1. Individuals within a population can vary in traits that are heritable
    • 2. Depending on an individual’s environmental conditions certain heritable traits help individuals reproduce more than others
  9. What’s the difference between evolutionary change and Natural selection?
    Evolutionary change affect populations and Natural selection affects individuals.
  10. What is the definition of fitness?
    The ability of an individual to produce off spring
  11. What is the definition of adaption?
    A trait that increases the fitness in a certain environment
  12. What is the definition of population?
    A group of individuals of the same species living in the same area at the same time.
  13. What is speciation?
    The evolution of 2 or more species from 1 species.
  14. What is the difference between Allopatric vs. Sympatric speciation?
    Allopatric is when geographical isolation creates a reproductive barrier, and Sympatric is when something other then geographic isolation creates a reproductive barrier
  15. What are the implication of speciation?
    All species past and present trace their ancestry back to one single ancestor
  16. What are the two types of classification of organisms?
    Linnean trees and Phylogentetic Trees
  17. What's the difference between Linnean trees and Phylogenetic trees?
    Linnean trees give each organism its own place at the end of the tree while relating all living things to each other. Phylogentic tree shows relation between species. The closer the branches the closer the relation between species.
  18. What are the three domains of the phylogenetic tree
    Bacteria, Archea, Eukarya
  19. What is Electronegativity
    The ability for a atom to attract electrons from another atom that its bonded to.
  20. If atoms are shared equally between each other they are?
    non polar covalent bonds
  21. If atoms are are unequally shared between each other they are?
    polar covalent bond
  22. What is an ion?
    A atom or molecule that carries a charge
  23. What is ionic bond
    The transfer of an electron, and resulting in a full charge.
  24. What is Cohesion?
    Hydrogen bonds to itself, bonding between like molecules
  25. What is Adhesion?
    Hydrogen bonds to other polar molecules, boding between unlike molecules
  26. What is specific heat?
    The amount of energy it takes to raise 1 gram of a substance by 1C
  27. What are the physical properties of Amino
    Acts as a base and attracts a proton
  28. What are the physical properties of Carboxyl
    Acts as a acid and tends to lose a proton
  29. What are the physical properties of Hydroxyl
    Highly polar,acts as a weak acid, and drops a proton
  30. What are the four major biological molecules?
    Proteins, Carbohydrates, Nucleic acids, and fats
  31. What are some functions of proteins?
    Defense against viruses, Movement, support for cells
  32. What is a peptide bond
    the C-N bond
  33. Long chains with Hydrocarbon are associated with?
    Hydrophobic molecules
  34. What feature of amino acids will have optical isomers?
    A Carbon with four different atoms or groups attached
  35. What is a structural isomer?
    Differs in the order which atoms are attached
  36. What is geometric isomer?
    Differ in the arrangement of atoms around a double bond
  37. 2 amino acids form_______by________
    peptide bonds; condensation or dehydration
  38. What are the 3 types of secondary structure?
    Alpha helix, Beta pleated, random coil
  39. What kind of bonds occur in a tetiary structre?
    Hydrogen bond, van der Waals, Disulfide bond(covalent), Ionic bond
  40. A base(NaOH)_____H+
  41. An acid(HCI)_______H+
  42. What is Homeostasis
    The array of relatively stable chemical and physical conditions in an animals cells, tissue and organs
  43. What did the Urey-Miller experiment demonstrate?
    it demonstrated that amino acids could form spontaneously under certain conditions and amino acids are the bldg. blocks of protiens
  44. What are the 2 types of nucleic acids
    RNA and DNA
  45. Nucleic acids are made up of monomers called?
  46. What are the 3 components of nucleotides?
    Sugar, Phosphate group and Nitrogen base
  47. What are the 4 ribonucleotides?
  48. What are the 4 dexoyribonucleotides
  49. What is the bond between nucleotides in DNA and RNA?
    Phosphodiester linkage
  50. What nitrogeneous bases are in ribonucleotides?
  51. What are the nitrogenous bases in deoxyribonucleotides
  52. What do ribozymes catalyze?
    Hydrolysis and condensation of phophodiester linkage
  53. What do all sugars have in common?
    Carbonyl group and hydroxyl group
  54. What are the monomers of carbohydrates?
  55. What connects monosaccharides?
    glycosidic linkages
  56. Cellulose is a polymer of?
    Beta Glucose
  57. Starch and glycogen are polymers of?
    Alpha glucose
  58. What is Chitin?
    A polysaccharide that stiffens the cell walls of fungi
  59. What is the definition of lipids
    non polar, hydrophobic, carbon containing compounds
  60. What is the name of the linkage between fatty acid and glycerol?
    Ester linkage
  61. which fatty acid is considered good?
  62. Which fatty acids are bad
  63. What are the 3 kinds of sterols?
    estrogen, testosterone,cholesterol
  64. What is the definition of amphipathic? And give an example.
    Compounds that contain both hydrophobic and hydrophilic element.(phospholipids have a hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tails)
  65. Ions don’t_____ through- CL+, Na-.
  66. Large Uncharged Molecules ___________through-glucose, sucrose
    don’t pass
  67. Small Uncharged Polar molecules _______through- H2O, Urea, Glycerol
  68. Hydrophobic Molecules _______through- 02, N2, CO2
  69. What is a Micelles and what is it made of
    • Micelles are short circular hydrocarbon side
    • chains(circular with water on outside but none inside)
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