1. is inhalation active or passive
    inhalation is active
  2. exhalation os active or passive
    passive in relaxing & active in high activity
  3. how does the size of the thoracic cavity increase during inhalation
    the muscles contractin,external intercostals moving ribs up and out incrasing the size of the thoracic cavity
  4. what do the external intercostals do
    move ribs in and out increasing size
  5. when are accessory muscles used and which muscles
    during high activity sternocleidomastids,serratus anterior,scalenes,pectoralis minor
  6. what will happen in contraction of internal intercostals
    during exhalation of high activity your interior intercostals will pull ur ribcage down and in and contraction of abdominals decrease size of thoracic cavity
  7. whats boyles law
    more collisions =more pressure

    volume decreases=pressure increases

    increase in volume=decrease in pressure
  8. atmosphere pressure is
  9. what is interpleural pressure
    negative pressure prevents lung collapse
  10. what is the pressure in relaxed lung
    alveolar 760mmhg intercostal plural 756mmhg
  11. what is the pressure in inhalation
    alveolar pressure 758mmhg intercostal pleural 754
  12. what is the pressure in exhalation
    alveolar pressure 762 intercostal pleural 756
  13. eupnea is what
    • low resting levels, costal breathing-shallow breathing
    • diaphagmatic breathing-deep breathing
    • (inhale is active &exhale is passive
  14. hernea is what
    high activity inhale uses accessory muscles & exhale muscles contract
  15. what is tital volume VT
    volume of air moved in normal resting breath vt=500ml
  16. resp. rate
    numbe rof breaths per min
  17. resp. minute volume
    • air moved per min tidal volume x respiratory rate
    • =12x500
    • =6,000ml/min 6l/min=rmv
  18. anatomic dead space
    air that never reaches alveoli (vd)=150ml
  19. alveolar ventilation



  20. what is daltons law
    each gas in a mixture of gasses making pressure. as if not other gasses were present. This will atribute to atmosphere pressure relating to abundunce.
  21. what is partial pressure
    the pressure of specific gas in a mixture
  22. atmospheric air is made up of what
    N2,02,H20,C02 each of these gasses have there own pressure ex:pressure of N2 not affected by other gasses
  23. the greater the atmosphere pressure....
    the greater the affect on the atmosphere
  24. henerys law
    1pressure:increase pressure=increase gas in a solution

    • decrease pressure =decrease gas in a solution
    • 2gas solubility solubility coefficient(easier to get co2 in solution than 02)
  25. how does nitrogen in blood affect the body
    will go into blood during pressure increase during suba diving. when scuba diving you must slowly ascend to prevent this.
  26. external resparation is what
    po2=100mmhg pc02=40mmhg
  27. internal resp is?
    po2=40mmhg pco2=45mmhg
  28. how is oxygen transported
    1)1.5%dissolved in plasma: 98.5% is bound to hemoglobin
  29. the higher the po2
    the more 02 bound to hemoglobin
  30. hemoglobins are usually what percent saturated
    50percent with 2 02 bound
  31. how does hemoglobin act as a buffer
    when ph lowers it takes in h+ but when ph is higher it releases h+
  32. how does temp affect resp
    cellular demand increases and amount of 02 for metabolic and cellular resparation as temp increases so does amount of 02 released. with decreased temp 02 release is decreased and more 02 is on hemoglobin
  33. what are the 3 methods of ntransport for carbon dioxide
    1 dissolved in plasma 2bound 2 hemoglobin3bicarbonate method
  34. what is the Co2 transport bi-carbonate method
    • Co2+h2O-> carbonic acid(h2C03)->hc03-+ h+
    • cATalized by ca=carbonic anhydrase,bicarbonate increased h+ cause ph to decrease some of the h+ binds to hemo-globin this buffers ph
  35. chloride shift is?
    cl-enters rbc hco3 leaves rbc and is able to act as buffer
  36. what are the rep center?
    oblongata and pons
  37. what s drg
    is active with every breath using diaphragm and external inter costals(medulla oblongata)
  38. what is vrg
    active only with forced breathing uses forced accessory muscles and diaphragm and external intercostals(medualla oblangata aka resp center
  39. apneustic
    continously stimulates drg
  40. pneumotaxic
    briefly inhibits apneustic centers(indirectly inhibits drg 4 exhalation)
Card Set