What are the functions of the nervous system?
- 1. Sensor Input - monitor changes in and outside of the body.
- 2. Integration - decide if action is needed in response to changes in or outside the body.
- 3. Motor Output - Reponse to stimuli.
What 2 systems is the Nervous System divided into?
What are the parts of the central nervous system?
What makes up the Peripheral Nervous System?
All nerves outside the brain and spinal cord.
What are the subdivisions of the Peripheral Nervous System?
- 1. Sensory (afferent)
- 2. Motor (efferent)
What does the afferent or sensory division of the peripheral nervous system do?
Carry information to the central nervous system.
What does the motor or efferent division of the peripheral nervous system do?
Carry impulses away from the central nervous system.
What are the 2 subdivisions of the efferent or motor division of the peripheral nervous system?
- 1. Somatic - voluntary
- 2. Autonomic - involuntary
What are Astrocytes?
Abundant, star shaped support cells in the nervous tissue that control the chemical environment of the brain.
What are Microglia?
Support cell of the nervous tissue that is shaped like a spider and disposes of debris.
What are Ependymal Cells?
Support cells of the nervous tissue that line the cavaties of the brain and spinal cord, and circulate cerebrospinal fluid.
What are Oligodendrocytes?
Cells that produce the myelin sheath found around nerve fibers in the central nervous system.
What do satellite cells do?
Protect neuron cell bodies?
What are Schwann Cells?
Cells that form the myelin sheath in the peripheral nervous system.
What are the major regions of a neuron?
What does the cell body of a neuron contain?
- Nissl Substance (a specialized rough endoplasymic reticulum)
- Neurofibrils (cytoskeleton that maintains cell shape)
What do the process of a neuron contain?
What are Dendrites?
Fibers that conduct impulses toward the cell body.
What are Axons?
Fibers that conduct impulses away from the cell body.
What is an Axon Terminal, and what does it do?
An Axon Terminal is the "end" of an axon, and it contains neurotransmitters to carry the impulse forward.
What is a synaptic cleft in the nervous system?
A gap between neurons.
What is a synapse?
A junction between nerves.
What are the 2 types of nerve fiber coverings?
- 1. Schwann Cells
- 2. Nodes of Ranvier
What do Schwann Cells do?
What are the Nodes of Ranvier?
Gaps in the myelin sheath along the axon.
What are the functional classifications of neurons?
- 1. Sensory (afferent)
- 2. Motor (efferent)
What is the correct order of the Reflex Arc?
- 1. Receptor
- 2. Afferent
- 3. Integration Center
- 4. Efferent
- 5. Effector
What are the 2 types of reflexes?
What do autonomic reflexes control?
- 1. Smooth muscle regulation
- 2. Heart and blood pressure
- 3. Regulation of glands
- 4. Digestive System
What do Somatic Rlexes control?
Activation of skeletal muscles.
Where does the CNS (Central Nervous System) develop?
The embryonic neural tube.
What does the Embryonic Neural Tube become?
The brain and spinal cord.
What does the opening of the Embryonic Neural Tube become?
The 4 brain ventricles located in the brain, and filled with cerebrospinal fluid.
What are the 4 Regions of the brain?
- 1. Cerebral Hemispheres
- 2. Diencephalon
- 3. Brain Stem
- 4. Cerebellum
What are the cerebral hemispheres?
Left and right superior parts of the brain, which includes more than half of the brains mass.
What is the surface of the brain made of?
- 1. Gyri - ridges
- 2. Sulci - grooves
What do fissures do?
Divide the brain into lobes.
Wha are the 4 Surface lobes of the Cerebrum?
- 1. Frontal
- 2. Parietal
- 3. Occipital
- 4. Temporal
What does the Somatic Sensory Area of the cerebrum do?
Receives impulses from the body's receptors.
What does the Primary Motor Area of the cerebrum do?
Sends impulses to the skeletal muscles.
What does Broca's Area do?
Helps us speak.
Where is the Primary Motor area of the brain?
The Frontal Lobe.
Where is the Primary Sensory Area of the brain?
The Parietal Lobe
What Cerebral areas are involved in special senses?
- 1. Gustatory (taste)
- 2. Visual
- 3. Auditory
- 4. Olfactory
Where is the Visual Area of the brain?
Where is the Olfactoray, Auditory and Gustatory area of the brain?
What are the layers of the Cerebrum?
- 1. Gray Matter - Outer layer
- 2. White matter - Inner Layer
- 3. Basal Nuclei - Internal islands of gray matter.
Which layer of the brain is mylenated?
- Myelinated - white matter
- Unmyelinated - gray matter
What are the 3 parts of the Diencephalon?
- 1. Thalamus
- 2. Hypothalamus
- 3. Epithalamus
What is the thalamus and what does it do?
Its the relay station for sensory impulses and it transfers them to the correct part of the cortex.
What is the hypothalmus?
It is an important part of the autonomic nervous system, and it helps regulate body temperature, metabolism, blood pressure, emotions and water balance.
What gland is attached to the hypothalamus?
The pituitary gland.
What does the Epithalamus do?
Houses the pineal gland and choroid plexus.
What does the choroid plexus do?
Form cerebrospinal fluid.
What are the 3 parts of the brain stem?
- 1. Midbrain
- 2. Pons
- 3. Medulla Oblongata
What does the midbrain do?
What does the Midbrain control?
Reflex centers for vision and hearing.
What does the Pons control?
What does the Medulla Oblongata control?
- Heart rate
- Blood pressure regulation
What does the Cerebellum do?
Coordinate body movements.
What protects the Central Nervous System?
- Scalp and Skin
- Skull and Vertebral Column
- Cerebrospinal Fluid
- Blood Brain Barrier
What are the 3 layers of the Meninges?
- 1. Dura Mater
- 2. Arachnoid Mater
- 3. Pia Mater
What are the layers of the Dura Mater?
Periosteum - attached to surface of the skull
Meningeal Layer - Outer covering of the brain
What is Cerebrospinal Fluid and where is it located?
It forms a watery cushion to protect the brain, and is circulated in the arachnoid space, ventricles, and central canal of the spinal cord.
What is the Blood Brain Barrier?
The BBB keeps bad things out of the brain and good thing in the brain.
Things that can cross the BBB?
- Respiratory Gases
- Fats and soluable molecules
3 Traumatic Brain Injuries:
- 1. Concussion
- 2. Contusion
- 3. Cerebral Edema
What is a concussion?
Slight brain injury with no permanent damage.
What is a contusion?
Nervous tissue destruction occurs and does not regenerate.
What is a Cerebral Edema?
Swelling in the brain, my compress and kill brain tissue.
What is a Cerebral Vascular Accident and what causes it?
Stroke, usually caused from a blood clot.
What is Alzheimers Disease?
A progressive degenerative disease that causes abnormal protien deposits and twisted fibers in neurons. Often results in memory loss.
Where is the Spinal Cord located in the body?
Extends from the Medulla Oblongata to T12.
What is the Cauda Equina?
A collection of spinal nerves below T12.
Where is the white and gray matter in the spinal cord?
Opposite from the brain, gray matter is on the inside and white matter is on the outside.
What is the central cavity of the spinal cord fill with?
What covers the spinal cord?
What is a nerve?
A bundle of neuron fibers.
What surrounds a neuron fiber?
What are groups of neuron fibers called?
How are fasciles bound together?
What are the Cranial Nerves?
12 pairs of nerves, numbered in order, front to back, in the brain.
How many spinal nerves are there?
What is the autonomic nervous system?
The involuntary branch of the nervous sytem, divided into 2 subdivisions.
What are the 2 subdivisions othe autonomic nervous system?
- Sympathetic - fight or flight
- Parasympathetic - rest and digest