1. footnote
    a note at the bottom of tha page in a book which provides more detailed info about something that is mentioned on that page
  2. forerunner
    • person that has been existed before something and either influenced the development or were a sign of what was going to happen.
    • Coll: the forerunner of sth/sb
  3. franchise
    an authorization granted by a government or company to an individual or group enabling them to carry out specified commercial activities.
  4. fraud (fraudulent: adj)
    [mass noun]wrongful or criminal deception intended to result in financial or personal gain

    [count noun] a person or thing intended to deceive others, typically by unjustifiably claiming or being credited with accomplishments or qualities:mediums exposed as tricksters and frauds
  5. gauge (gaugeable: adj)
    • [noun] 1. an instrument that measures and gives a visual display of the amount, level, or contents of something
    • 2. the thickness, size, or capacity of something, especially as a standard measure, in particular.
    • 3. Nautical, archaic the position of a sailing ship to windward ( the weather gage) or leeward (the lee gage) of another.

    • [verb]
    • 1. estimate or determine the amount, level, or volume of.
    • 2. measure the dimensions of (an object) with a gauge
  6. germinate (germination: n)
    • verb
    • [no object] (of a seed or spore) begin to grow and put out shoots after a period of dormancy.
    • [with object] cause (a seed or spore) to germinate.come into existence and develop:
  7. Gross
    • [adj]
    • 1. total amount of sth, esp money, before any has been taken away
    • Coll: a ~ profit/income/margin
    • ~ interest/revenues
    • 2. total amount of sth, after all the relevant amounts have been added together.
    • Coll: ~ sales/proceeds

    • [v] earn that amount of money before tax has been taken away
    • Coll: a flim/movie ~
  8. groundbreaking
    • innovative; pioneering:
    • Coll: ~ research/work
    • a ~ discovery/ceremony/study/series
    • truly ~
  9. harness
    [noun] a set of straps and fittings by which a horse or other draught animal is fastened to a cart, plough, etc. and is controlled by its arrangement of straps for fastening something such as a parachute to a person’s body or for restraining a young child.

    • [verb] [with object]
    • 1. put a harness on (a horse or other draught animal): how to groom a horse and harness it
    • 2. control and make use of (natural resources), especially to produce energy.

    • Coll: ~ power/energy/potential/technology
    • successfully/properly/ ~ sth

    • Phrase: in harness
    • - (of a horse or other animal) used for driving or draught work
    • - in the routine of daily work
    • - so as to achieve something together
  10. hindsight
    • [mass noun] understanding of a situation or event only after it has happened or developed
    • Coll: with/in ~
    • historical/twenty - twenty ~
    • ~ suggests/prompts sth

    Phrase: the benefit of hindsight
  11. Hostile
    • [adjective]
    • showing or feeling opposition or dislike; unfriendly
    • of or belonging to a military enemy:hostile aircraft
    • [predic.] opposed
  12. hydraulic
    /hʌɪˈdrɔːlɪk, hʌɪˈdrɒlɪk/
    • [adjective]
    • 1. denoting or relating to a liquid moving in a confined space under pressure
    • 2. relating to the science of hydraulics:hydraulic analysis of streams
    • 3. (of cement) hardening under water.

    • Coll: ~ conductivity/fluid/steering
    • a ~ lift/pump/brake
  13. hydraulics
    /hʌɪˈdrɔːlɪks, -ˈdrɒlɪks/
    • [plural noun]
    • 1. [usually treated as singular] the branch of science and technology concerned with the conveyance of liquids through pipes and channels, especially as a source of mechanical force or control.
    • 2. hydraulic systems or forces

    • Coll: sophisticated/internal ~
    • a ~ failure/labolatory/engineer
  14. hydroelectric
    [adjective] relating to or denoting the generation of electricity using flowing water (typically from a reservoir held behind a dam or barrage) to drive a turbine which powers a generator:economic and environmental aspect of the hydroelectric scheme

    • Coll: a ~ dam/plant/project
    • ~ power
  15. hypothesis
    • [noun] (plural hypotheses /-siːz/)
    • a supposition or proposed explanation made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting point for further investigation
    • [Philosophy] a proposition made as a basis for reasoning, without any assumption of its truth

    • Coll: test/support/confirm/propose a ~
    • a null/testable/alternative ~
  16. ibid
    [adverb] in the same source (used to save space in textual references to a quoted work which has been mentioned in a previous reference)
  17. imagery
    • [noun]
    • 1 [mass noun] visually descriptive or figurative language, especially in a literary work:
    • 2. visual images collectively

    • Coll: ~ in/of sth
    • vivid/powerful/striking/strong ~
    • visual/mental/ computer - generated/digital ~
    • sexual/religious/erotic ~
  18. imminent
    • [adjective]
    • 1. about to happen
    • 2. [archaic] overhanging.

    • Coll: an ~ treat/danger/attack/war
    • the ~ demise/collapse/release of sth
    • an ~ arrival/departure
  19. implicit (implicity: n)
    • [adjective]
    • 1. suggested though not directly expressed
    • 2. (implicit in) always to be found in; essentially connected with
    • 3. with no qualification or question; absolute
    • 4 [Mathematics] (of a function) not expressed directly in terms of independent variables.

    • Coll: an ~ assumption/understanding/message
    • an ~ threat/criticism/warning
  20. incentive
    • [noun]
    • a thing that motivates or encourages someone to do something
    • a payment or concession to stimulate greater output or investment

    • Coll: an ~ for sth/sb
    • provide/offer/give/create/an ~
    • a financial/economic/added/extra/additional ~
    • a tax/cash/strong/powerful/perverse ~
    • >< discentive
  21. incidence
    • [noun]
    • 1. the occurrence, rate, or frequency of a disease, crime, or other undesirable thing
    • the way in which the burden of a tax falls upon the population
    • 2 .[mass noun] Physics the intersection of a line, or something moving in a straight line, such as a beam of light, with a surface:the point of incidence of the beam
  22. incur
    • [verb] (incurs, incurring, incurred)
    • [with object] become subject to (something unwelcome or unpleasant) as a result of one’s own behaviour or actions

    • Coll: ~ costs/expenses/expenditure/damage
    • ~ a charge/fee/loss/debt
    • ~ a penalty/fine/liability
    • ~sb's wrath
  23. induce
    • [verb] [with object]
    • 1. [with object and infinitive] succeed in persuading or leading (someone) to do something:the pickets induced many workers to stay away
    • 2. bring about or give rise to
    • produce (an electric charge or current or a magnetic state) by induction
    • [Physics] cause (radioactivity) by bombardment with radiation.
    • 3 [Medicine] bring on (the birth of a baby) artificially, typically by the use of drugs:(as adjective induced)induced labourbring on childbirth in (a pregnant woman) artificially, typically by the use of drugs:
    • 4. [Logic] derive by inductive reasoning:from the experimental evidence, one infers or induces the hypothesis

    • Coll: ~ a state/feeling/sense/change
    • ~ a response/reaction/heart attack/coma
    • ~ sleep/vomiting/fear/panic/relaxation
  24. inexorable
    • [adjective]
    • impossible to stop or prevent
    • impossible to persuade; unrelenting

    • Coll: an ~ rise/decline/slide/force/pressure
    • ~ progress/growth/logic

    Phrase: the ~ march of/towards sth
  25. infer
    • [verb] (infers, inferring, inferred)
    • [with object] deduce or conclude (something) from evidence and reasoning rather than from explicit statements

    • Coll: ~ the meaning/existence of sth
    • reasonably ~
  26. inflate
    • [verb]
    • [usually with object]
    • 1. fill (a balloon, tyre, or other expandable structure) with air or gas so that it becomes distended:never use an air line on a garage forecourt to inflate your tyres
    • [no object] become distended with air or gas:the mattress inflated
    • 2. increase (something) by a large or excessive amountexaggerate
    • 3. bring about inflation of (a currency) or in (an economy):he has inflated the money supply to allow companies to continue in their old ways

    • Coll: ~ a balloon/tyre/airbag/raft/lung
    • a balloon/airbag ~s
  27. inherent
    /ɪnˈhɪər(ə)nt, -ˈhɛr(ə)nt/
    • [adjective]
    • existing in something as a permanent, essential, or characteristic attribute
    • [Law] vested in (someone) as a right or privilege.
    • [Linguistics] (of an adjective) having the same meaning in both attributive and predicative uses

    • Coll: ~ in sth
    • an ~ risk/danger/problem/weakness/flaw
    • an ~ quality/characteristic/part/contradiction
  28. insoluble
    • [adjective]
    • 1. impossible to solve
    • 2. (of a substance) incapable of being dissolved
  29. integral
    /ˈɪntɪgr(ə)l, ɪnˈtɛgr(ə)l/
    • [adjective]
    • 1. necessary to make a whole complete; essential or fundamental
    • included as part of a whole rather than supplied separately
    • having all the parts that are necessary to be complete

    2 [Mathematics] of or denoted by an integer.involving only integers, especially as coefficients of a function.

    • [noun]
    • [Mathematics] a function of which a given function is the derivative, i.e. which yields that function when differentiated, and which may express the area under the curve of a graph of the function.

    • Coll: ~ to sth
    • an ~ part/component/element/aspect/role
Card Set