Invading warlike people that migrated to Indus.
Shruti-(what is heard)
- *Vedas-(Bodies of Knowledge)
- 4th collections:
- 1- RigVeda- collection of about 1,000 hymns, mostly prayer and praise to one deity or to a group of deities.
2- SamaVeda- Mainly consists of rhythmic chants borrows from the RigVeda.
3- ArthaVeda - A special class of texts, deals with charms, magical spells, incantations, and kingly duties.
- Voluminous body of writings which describes detail ritual observances and sacrifices and discusses the mystical meanings of various rites.
- Each Veda is supplemented by its own Bahmans.
- Forest book which supplements the Brahmas.
- For religious aesthete that choose to retire to isolation in the forest.
- Concerned with the innermost nature of humankind and the universe.
- Large group of writings attached to the back of the Aryanyakas.
- Contains the basic philosophical framework of Hinduism.
Smirti (what is remembered)
( Ramayana )
- Recounts the story of Rama, a prince that was exiled to the forest for 14 years.
- Rama's wife Sita is abducted by a demon and with the aid of his friend Hanuman, Sita is restored to her husband.
- Rama and Sita are considered the ideal couple in Hinduism.
- Collection of ancient lore, mythological data on the genealogy of gods, sages, and kings and descriptions of creation, destruction and-creation of the universe.
- Accessible to everyone, including women .
Smirti ( Tantras )
Tantrism is the belief in the search for spiritual power and ultimate release from the cycle of rebirth by the repetition of mantras and other esoteric rites.
- Longer than the Ramayana, more than half of it deals with politics, laws, religion and other topics.
- In Hinduism, one of two great epics featuring the activities of the God Krishna.
Smirti (Manusmirti) - The code of Manu.
- Manu is considered the father of humankind, like Adam for the major religions, and also of social and moral order.
- The texts include marriage laws, dietary regulations, the duties of each castes, civil and criminal laws, and the daily rites and sacrifices, as well as statements on various ethical subjects.
Theology- Balance (Rita) is key.
- Vault of the sky
The principle of natural order which regulates and coordinates the operation of the universe and everything within it.
- 1) Brahmins (priests)
- 2) Kshartiyas (warriors/rulers)
- 3) Vaisya (merchants/ trades people)
- 4) Sudras ( servants)
- 5) outcastes (untouchables)
Stages of Life - (Ashrama)
1- students - after a boy undergoes a ceremony between 8 and 12, making him a full member of the caste. The boy is taught by his guru until ages of 20 and 24.
2- Householders - the longest of the stages, lasting until middle age. Must live an active married life and apply the 3 ideals of social living. 1( observance of accepted religious duties. 2( the accumulation of wealth. 3( the enjoyment of pleasure.
- 3- Forest Dwellers/ Retirees.
- Starts when the householder's hair begins to turn gray or when his first grandson is born. Leaves home alone( or with his wife) a d lives as a hermit in the forest to lead a life of reflection and meditation. In the forest he must work to detach himself from previous life and attachments.
4- Sannyasi - when the forest dweller feels spiritually ready to leave the forest life and begin the life of an ascetic. Becomes homeless, void of material desires, attachments and possessions, including his ties with his wife if she came with him.
texts that refers to the śāstra, or Indic branch of learning, pertaining to Hindu dharma, religious and legal duty
Brahmanism (Way of Knowledge)
is the unchanging, infinite, immanent, and transcendent reality which is the Divine Ground of all matter, energy, time, space, being, and everything beyond in this Universe; that is the one supreme, universal spirit. Brahman is sometimes referred to as the Absolute or Godhead which is the Divine Ground of all being. Brahman is conceived as personal ("with qualities"), impersonal ("without qualities") and/or supreme depending on the philosophical school.
was the preeminent leader of Indian nationalism in British ruled India. Employing non-violent civil disobedience, Gandhi led India to independence and inspired movements for non-violence, civil rights and freedom across the world.
The idea of jnana centers around a cognitive event which is recognized when experienced. It is knowledge inseparable from the total experience of reality, especially a total reality, or supreme being within Mahesha-dhama (and/or material world) such as Siva-Sakti.
word that means 'self'. In Hindu philosophy, especially in the Vedanta school of Hinduism it refers to one's true self beyond identification with phenomena. In order to attain salvation (liberation) a human being must acquire self-knowledge (atma jnana) which is to say realise experientially that one's true self is identical with the transcendent self (paramatman) that is called Brahman.
was originally a word used in Hindu philosophy as a synonym for that part of the Veda texts known also as the Upanishads.
Bhakti (Way of devotion)
- Way of devotion
- Puja- ritual
is a religious ritual performed by Hindus as an offering to various deities.
The helper God. " Lord of creatures" and depicted as the great ascetic, with an erect penis, his symbol. Shiva's animal companion is Nandi, the bull on which he rides.
Also called Durga is particularly revered. A more terrible divinity than Shiva, Kali is frequently depicted as drinking blood, tearing away the flesh of sacrificial animals and wearing a necklace of human skulls. Hindu mythology also connects her with the founding of Calcutta.
The most important celestial deities are:
- Varuna- sky god, maintains cosmic order and protects moral action
- Mitra- sun God
- Vishnu -distinguished by his "three strides" which encompass earth, atmosphere and paradise. Another distinguishing attribute is his ability to appear in this world through various incarnations ( avatars), his most famous of which is his avatar as the Devine human lord Krishna.
- Young Krishna ( Gopala)
- Discipline - is used in two distinct senses.
- The meaning most familiar on the west is the physical, mental, and physic discipline practices for either purely spiritual purposes or to attain maximum physical well-being. It's also used to denote one of the six philosophical systems.
The principle of natural order which regulates and coordinates the operation of the universe and everything within it