Biology Final

  1. What are the Macro nutrients needed for a plant to survice?
    • Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Nitrogen, Sulphur, Calcium and Magnesium
    • C Hopkins Cafe Managed
  2. What are the micro nutrients needed for a plant to survive?
    • Iron, Boron, Manganese, Copper, Zinc, Chlorine and Molybdenum
    • By Mine Cousin Clyde Mo
  3. How do hydroponics work?
    Plants are deprived of random nutrients, then observed to see which nutrients are need by the plants and which are not.
  4. How does water move into the vascular tissue of the root?
    It enters through epidermal cells at their root hairs, then progresses through the cells across the cortex and endodermis of a root by means of cytoplasmic strands within plasmodesmata.
  5. What is the difference between cohesion and adhesion in water molecules?
    Cohesion refers to the tendency of water molecules to cling together, whereas refers to the ability of water to interact with the molecules making up the walls of the vessels in xylem to give it extra strength.
  6. How does water move into the leaves?
    Through transpiration, when the stomata is open, the cells of the spongy layer are exposed to the air which can be dry, so water evaporates as a gass or vapor from the spongy layer into the intracellular spaces.
  7. What are the stoma and what do they do?
    The stoma ar elike doorways for water to enter into and exit a plant.
  8. What is a pressure-flow model?
    A current explanation for the movement of organic materials in phloem.
  9. What is positive and negative phototropism?
    • Positive is when cells on the shady side of the stem elongate due to the presence of auxin.
    • Negative is when they curve away from the light.
  10. What is thigmotropism?
    Unequal growth due to contact with solid objects.
  11. What is gravitropism?
    When a plant grows against gravity.(for example a plant being laid down on it's side, yet still grows upwards)
  12. What are nastic movements?
    Non-directional responses to stimuli.
  13. What are turgor movements?
    Movements based on the amount of water inside a plant.
  14. What is a coleoptile?
    A protective sheathing for the young leaves of the seedling.
  15. What does the hormone Auxin do?
    It is responsible for apical dominance, which occurs when the terminal bud produces new growth instead of auxillary buds.
  16. What does the hormone Gibberellin do?
    They cause stem elongation.
  17. What does the hormone Cytokinin do?
    Encourage cell division, which extends the life of vegtables in storage.
  18. What does the hormone Abscisic Acid do?
    Promotes dormancy, preventing the plant from growing any further.
  19. What does the hormone Ethylene cause?
    Ethylene causes abscission of fruits and ripens the fruit.
  20. What happens to a plant when apical dominance has been eliminated?
    It will grow however it wants and fruit will fall off once it has ripened even if it isn't ready.
  21. What it the angiosperm life cycle?
    • The flower produces two types of spores by meiosis, microspores and megaspores.
    • Microspores become a pollen grain, while the megaspore has undergone mitosis and became a female gameotophyte, which is the embryo sac located within an ovule found within the ovary.
    • At maturity a pollen grain contains non flagellated sperm that travel through the pollen tube top the embryo sac. The the sperm fertilizes the egg, the zygote becomes an embryo still within the ovule. The the ovule develops into a seed that turns into a fruit and it starts all over again.
  22. What is the relationship between seeds and fruits?
    Fruits are a mature ovary that help protect and disperse seeds.
  23. What are the three different layer of fruit, from outside in?
    • Exocarp
    • mesocarp
    • endocarp
  24. What is a simple fruit?
    One that is derived from a single ovary, that can have one or several chambers.
  25. What is a compound fruit?
    One that is derived from several groups of ovaries.
  26. If a single flower has many ovaries, such as blackberry's, then it is a ________.
  27. When a flower only has one receptacle, the ovaries can fuse together, such as in a pineapple, this is known as ____________.
    multiple fruit
  28. Some fruits, such as rice and corn are mistaken for seeds because a dry pericarp adheres to the seed within, these are known as ____________.
    dry fruits
  29. When the mesocarp of a fruit is well developed, such as a peach or tomato, it is known as a ____________.
    fleshy fruit
  30. What is seed germination and how does it differ from dormancy?
    Germination is when the seed begins to grow, while dormancy is the time during which no growth occurs, even if the conditions are favorable.
  31. How is the eudicot and monocot use of the cotyledon different?
    • In monocots the cotyledon, in addition to storing certain nutrients, absorbs other nutrient molecules from the endosperm and passes them to the embryo.
    • In eudicots, the cotyledons usually store all the nutrient molecules that the embryo uses, which pushes the endosperm out of the way since it has been taken over by two cotyledons.
  32. Describe the development of a eudicot during germination.
    If the two cotyledons of the seed are parted, the rudimentary plant with immature leaves are exposed. As it starts to form, the root emerges first, the shoot is hook shaped to protect the immature leaves. The cotyledons provide the new seedlings enough energy for the stem to straighten and leaves to grow. As the mature leaves of the plant begin photosynthesizing the cotyledons shrivel up.
  33. Describe development of a monocot during germination.
    The immature leaves and radicale are covered, respectivley by a coleoptile and a coleorhiza. These sheaths are discarded as the root grows directly downward into the soil and the shoot of the seedling begins to grow directly upward.
  34. _____ are horizontal stems that can be seen because they run above ground.
  35. _________ are underground stems that produce new plants asexually.
  36. Many plant cells are ______ which means that each one has the genetic ability of becoming an entire plant.
Card Set
Biology Final
Biology 104 Final Exam