D.P. Chapter 8

  1. general intelligence (g)
    the part of intelligence common to all intellectual tasks

    -correlated with: school achievement, information-processing speed, speed of neural transmission in the brain, knowledge of subjects not studied in school
  2. crystallized intelligence
    factual knowledge about the world; it increases with age

    -ex. of this include knowledge about state capitals, past presidents, & arithmetic facts?
  3. fluid intelligence
    the ability to think on the spot to solve problems; peaks in early adulthood, then declines slowly after early adulthood

    -ability to think on the spot to solve novel problems
  4. Thurstone's Intelligence Model
    • -made a model of intelligence centered around Primary Mental Abilities (PMAs), independent group factors of intelligence that different individuals possessed in varying degrees
    • -He opposed the notion of a singular general intelligence that was expressed as a mental age
    • -said there were 7 primary mental abilities: verbal comprehension, word fluency, number facility, spatial visualization, associative memory, perceptual speed and reasoning
    • -the model offers greater precision
  5. John Carroll's Three-stratum Theory of Intelligence
    -proposes a hierarchy in which g is at the top and many specific processes are at the bottom; resolves the controversy over whether intelligence is a single entity or multiple processes

    • -the three strata are defined as representing narrow, broad, and general cognitive ability
    • -theory is based on factor analysis from measures like psychological tests, school marks, and competence ratings
    • -the factor analysis suggests three layers or strata; each layer accounts for the variation at the next lower level
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  6. Gardner's Multiple Intelligence Theory
    -people possess 8 intelligences

    -model of intelligence that differentiates intelligence into various specific (primarily sensory) modalities, rather than seeing it as dominated by a single general ability

    -child prodigies who were exceptional in only 1 particular area & brain damaged patients who had only 1 particular deficit support Gardner's theory

    -encourages adapting a child's education to its abilities; will make them learn better and are more likely to contribute to society as much as they can
  7. Sternberg's Theory of Successful Intelligence (triarchic)
    • -views intelligence as the ability to achieve success in life (or how well an individual deals with environmental changes throughout their lifespan); comprised of 3 parts:
    • -analytic
    • -practical
    • -creative

    -so people who can build on their strengths, compensate for their weaknesses, & select environments in which they can succeed are considered of high 'intelligence'
  8. Intelligence Tests Measure:
    • 1) observable behavior
    • 2) different aspects of intelligence in children of different ages

    • -greatest success with preschoolers and older children
    • -continuity of scores from age 5 onward; the closer in time scores are collected, the more closely they're correlated
    • -scores are more stable at older ages
    • -influenced by characteristics of children & their parents
  9. Wechsler Intelligence Test for Children (WISC)
    • -a widely used instrument designed to assess the intelligence of children ages 6 and older
    • -divided into two main sections:
    • 1) verbal section: general knowledge of the world and language skills
    • 2) performance section: spatial and perceptual abilities
  10. The Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
    • -tests intelligence relative to that of other children; follows a normal distribution
    • -68% of scores falling within 1standard deviation of the mean; 95% of scores falling within 2 standard deviations
  11. Gifted Children Bullshit
    • -show signs of giftedness from very early in development
    • -tends to foreshadow later achievement
    • -however abilities in one area does not imply exceptional ability across the board
  12. IQ scores can be (strong) predictors of:
    • -academic, economic, and occupational success
    • -but other factors (e.g., motivation, creativity, health, social skills etc.) are also important
  13. Genotype-Environment Correlation
    • occurs when exposure to environmental conditions depends on an individual's genotype
    • -3 causal mechanisms giving rise to gene-environment correlations: 1) Passive effects, 2) Evocative effects, 3) Active effects
  14. 1) Passive effects
    -the association between the genotype a child inherits from her parents and the environment in which the child is raised
  15. 2) Evocative effects
    reactive effects happen when an individual's (heritable) behavior evokes an environmental response
  16. 3) Active effects
    occur when an individual possesses a heritable propensity to select environmental exposure ex. extroverts individuals may seek out different social environments than introverts
  17. HOME (Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment)
    • -an inventory designed to measure the quality and extent of stimulation available to a child in the home environment
    • -Caldwell & Bradley devised to measure family influences
  18. the influence of non-shared environments ________ with
  19. the influence of the shared environment is _______ among
    impoverished families
  20. the _____ years children spend in poverty, the _____ their IQs tend to be
    • the MORE years children spend in poverty, the LOWER their IQs tend to be
    • -has to do with factors associated with nutrition, health care,
    • intellectual stimulation, and emotional support
  21. Risk factors and how they relate to IQ:
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    • -being exposed to more risks is correlated to a lower IQ
  22. Carolina Abecedarian Project
    -a comprehensive and successful enrichment program for children from low-income families; demonstrated the importance of beginning intervention programs early and continuing them for an extended period of time

    • -studied the potential benefits of early childhood education for poor children; infants were assigned to either the early educational intervention group or the control group
    • -the young adult findings demonstrate that important, long-lasting benefits were associated with the early childhood program
  23. Project Head Start
    provides comprehensive education, health, nutrition, and parent involvement services to low-income children and their families

    • -services more than 25 million children for 45
    • years; 1 million 3-5 year-olds each year
    • -medical, dental, and nutrition services as well as intellectual stimulation and day care
  24. most middle-income children learn the names of letters of the alphabet:
    most middle-income children learn the names of letters of the alphabet: before they enter school
  25. phonemic awareness
    -the ability to identify component sounds within spoken words; ex. a child who has developed phonemic awareness understands that there are THREE distinct sounds in 'bat'

    -awareness of the sounds used in a language; results in an increased ability to recognize words & read

    -the ability to hear, identify, and manipulate the sounds of spoken language

    -both causes/is correlated with better reading skills
  26. two ways to easily identify words:
    • 1) phonological recoding
    • 2) visually based retrieval
  27. 1) phonological recoding
    process of mentally going through the sound of the word to get from the printed word to the word's meaning; a reading skill used to translate written symbols into sounds and words (contrast with phonemic awareness)

    -a child with phonological recoding can sound out the written word 'bat'
  28. 2) visually based retrieval
    proceeding directly from the visual form of the word to its meaning; aka readiing words WITHOUT sounding them out
  29. dyslexia
    • -the inability to read well despite normal intelligence
    • -5% to 10% of children in the US are dyslexic
    • -general weakness in phonological processing (the ability to discriminate and remember sounds within words)
    • -children with dyslexia should be taught to use strategies that enhance their phonological recoding skills
    • -has nothing to do with level of intelligence, just with reading ability
    • -poor at reading because their phonemic awareness abilities are not that good
    • -exercises that enhance phonemic awareness improve reading
  30. Mathematical Disabilities
    • -between 5% - 8% of children have mathematical disabilities
    • 1) can have information processing problems; lack early experience with numbers
    • 2) anxiety can affect
    • 3) teaching problems: might not be due to child lacking some ability but can be due to teaching style
  31. Now from the STudy guide
  32. g (general intelligence)
    the part of intelligence that is common to all intellectual tasks; high levels are associated with performance in school, cognitive processing characteristics such as information-processing speed, & high levels of knowledge of subjects not studied in school
  33. strategy-choice process
    -procedure for selecting among alternative ways of solving problems

    -in reading, children use it to determine whether to sound out a word or retrieve it from memory

    -strategy choice from slides: from phonological recoding to relying primarily on retrieval
  34. primary mental abilities
    seven abilities suggested by Thurstone to be crucial to intelligence

    -include reasoning, perceptual speed, and spatial visualization
  35. mental modes
    • -processes used to represent a situation or sequence of events
    • -ex. reading comprehension involves forming a mental mode of the situation or idea being depicted in the text and continuously updating it
  36. phonological recoding skills
    the ability to translate letters into sounds and to blend sounds into words
  37. IQ
    a summary measure used to indicate an individual's intelligence relative to others of the same age; a score of 100 indicates that an individual is of average intelligence for his or her age group
  38. normal distribution
    a pattern of data in which scores fall symmetrically around a mean value, with most scores falling close to the mean and a few scores falling far from the mean; the fact that IQ scores follow this pattern allows for the assignment of IQ scores that are based on mean & STD dev
  39. comprehension monitoring
    • -the process of keeping track of one's understanding of material as it is read (WHAT)
    • -a child who DOESN'T engage in this will not realize that he is not able to udnerstand what is happening in a story he is reading and thus will not go back and reread a difficult passage
  40. mathematical equality
    the idea that the values on the two sides of an equal sign must balance
  41. gesture-speech mismatches
    a phenomenon in which hand movements convey different ideas than verbal statements

    -children who show these when they explain their incorrect answer are more likely to benefit from INSTRUCTION than other children
  42. phonological processing
    the ability to discriminate & remember sounds within words; most children w/ dyslexia are poor at reading BECAUSE of a general weakness in phonological processing
  43. standard deviation
    a measure of the variability of scores within a distribution
  44. Pre-K Mathematics
    a curriculum designed to prevent mathematics disabilities in young children; this program allows low-income children to start formal schooling with their mathematical knowledge on equal footing with that of children from more privileged backgrounds
  45. self-discipline
    the ability to inhibit actions, follow rules, and avoid impulsive reactions
  46. practical intelligence
    mental abilities NOT measured on IQ tests but important for success in many situations ('street smarts'); ex. the ability to accurately read people's emotions
  47. Flynn Effect
    the rise in average IQ scores that ahs occurred over the past 75 years in many countries; because the gene pool hasn't changed, it has to be due to ENVIRONMENTAL changes
  48. in a normal distribution, 68% of scores fall within one ________________ of the mean
    standard deviation!
  49. positive correlations among dissimilar intellectual tasks has led to the hypothesis of the existence of:
    general intelligence
  50. three-stratum theory of intelligence proposes the three levels as:
    "g", moderately general abilities, specific processes
  51. WISC yields scores for:
    general intelligence, perceptual reasoning, working memory

    -NOT performance intelligence (?)
  52. the correlation between IQ at one age and IQ at another age is LOWEST for which of the following pairs of ages:
    6 & 8 years; NOT 7 and 9 years; the correlations are not equally low
  53. example of passive effect of the genotype on scientific understanding:
    'Blake's parents love to read about science, so they ave many science books and magazines in their home'
  54. variation of ____________ has the greatest impact on the development of intelligence
    variation within-family differences has the greatest impact on intelligence
  55. the strategy-choice process involves chosing:
    the FASTEST approach that will be most likely to be correct
  56. _________________ has the largest impact on reading comprehension
    content knowledge has the largest impact on reading comprehension
Card Set
D.P. Chapter 8
Intelligence & Academic Achievement