Exercise Physiology

  1. Image Upload 1
    What does this Graph represent?
    • 6 athletes working out 10 miles for 3 days.
    • During workouts their muscle glycogen stores are being depleted and not replenished properly thus performance is lessened.
    • On the 5th day all 6 athletes performances improve dramatically beacuse of the 2 days of rest which allowed for enough time to replenish Carbohydrate stores.
  2. During prolonged exercise how much carbs are used?
    1-2g of Carbs/min
  3. What then happens after body uses all the stored carbs?
    Body shifts to using GlucoNEOgenesis (the creation of NEW Glucose)
  4. What is the rate of Gluconeogenesis? Is this enough to sustain energy need to perform?
    2-4g of Carbs/minute

    No, this rate maybe higher but slower thus Hypoglycemia occurs.
  5. What is hypoglycemia and its problems?
    • Low Blood Sugar.
    • Problem- uses adipose tissure for energy through Gluconeogenesis, this rate of breaking down fat is much slower thus performance is slowed or stopped.
    • It is IMPORTANT to start with the most Carbs stored for better performance.
  6. During repreated days of training what is the difference betwen Low and High Carb Diets?
    Low carb diets declined muscle glycogen each day where as the High carb diets were able to restore muscle glycogen stores to near normal limits each day.
  7. What are the percentages of carb daily diets?
    • High carb 70-80%
    • Moderate 50-55%
    • High fat/ Low carb <15%
  8. What does a High Glycemic Diet result in?
    A) Increase performance, B) Increase Speed, C) Both, D) Neither
    A) Increase performance
  9. How does low carb and high carb effect performance?
    Low carb diets offers less performance duration because muscle glycogen stores deplete quickly, where as a high carb diet offers a long performance because muscle glycogen stores are to near capacity for optimal performance. Thus high carb dieting doesn't make you FASTER but helps you MAINTAIN performance.
  10. What is the missing link about carb intake?
    It is the TYPE of carbs
  11. How fast does it take Glycogen stores to rebound?
    withing 24 hour period
  12. How many kcals can the muscles hold in carbs?
    1500-2600kcals of carbs
  13. Describe Carbo or Glycogen Loading.
    • Where an exhaustive exercise is conducted 7 days before the athletic event.
    • 3 days after this hard exercise eat only fat and protein limiting carbs to 60-100grams with training
    • Next 3 days increase Carb eating to 400-700grams with NO training.
  14. What is the result of this carboloading?
    • The exhaustive workout will completely deplete the muscly glycogen stored.
    • Then when you eat only fat and protein limiting your carbs an enzyme known as glycogen SYNTHASE will produce glycogen increasingly to replenish what your not replenishing after you continue to train. Next for the 3 more days you eat lots of carbs and this doubles the glycogen stores which increases production even more.
  15. What is this type of carboloading known as?
    Known as the classic or extreme plan because your cutting carbs than over eating carbs to make this glycogen production occur to enhance performance duration on the 7th day
  16. Describe the modified carboloading plan.
    • Conduct a 90 minute workout to deplete muscle glycogen.
    • 3 days after eat a mix diet of 50-55% of kcals from Carbs (350grams), Fats, Proteins with 40 minute training. Next 3 days, eat a high carb diet at about 70% of your kcals (500-600grams).
  17. What is the result of this modified carboloading?
    • Less intense workout but longer duration still depletes your muscle glycogen stores completely.
    • The 3 days after that lets you eat a balanced diet, while the 3 days after that requires you to eat a high carb diet.
  18. What is the difference and similiarities between the classic and the modified carboloading plans?
    • Days 1,2,3 are the major differences 3 day mix diet vs 3 day low carb diet
    • Days 4,5,6 are the same with consuming a high carb diet.
    • The key importance though is the exercise bout ahd the increase in carb diet.
  19. What are the ramifications of exercising while being hypoglycemic?
    without proper glycogen stores because of lack of carbs performance is stopped our slowed down
  20. What kind of diet resulte in HIGH glycogen stores?
    HIGH carb dieting!
  21. Henry and James have the same fit level. but consume different diets. Henry consumes normal/mixed diet while James consumes high carbs. If both ran at same speed who would slow down first? WIll their diet effect their start speed?
    Henry because he has more energy in high muscles do to increase in carbs. Speed is not effected but performance duration is.
  22. TO replenish carb stores what % of diet should be from carbs?
    60-70% for athletes
  23. Based on carbo-loading model when should you perform an exhaustive exercise before an event?
    7 days
  24. What is the Glycemic Index?
    Characterizes blood glucose response of a given food compared to a standard 2 hours period.
  25. Describe High and Low Glycemic Index compared to Blood Glucose levels during an hour.
    • High Glycemic foods sky rocket and crash your bld/glu levels quickly.
    • Where as Low Glycemic foods elevate slightly and decrease slowly sustaining your bld/glu levels for a longer time.
  26. What does HGI foods lead to? and what are its effects?
    HYPOglycemia which leads you to eat more after you crash.
  27. What does LGI foods lead to? and what are its effects?
    Replenish muscles and sustain performance longer.
  28. What are types of HGL foods?
    bagels, skinless potato, cookies, candy, white bread
  29. what are types of LGI foods?
    fruit, beans, vegetables, dairy, whole grains. Foods that are more natural and less refined.
  30. What is the blood glucose normal blood sugar limits?
    3.8-6.1 milimol of Glucose/ Liter of Blood.
  31. What is released to lower blood sugar levels?
    Insulin by the pancreas responds by lowering blood sugar levels to normal limit range
  32. What is released to raise blood sugar levels?
    Glucagon by the pancreas.
  33. What is the effects of HGI in the blood?
    It raises blood levels about normal limits. The pancrease releases insulin to lower, but it lowers to much because of increasing HGI foods in blood. So the blood levels go below normal limits. The pancrease then releases glucagon to increase and the yo-yo affect continues.
  34. What are the glycemic food rating percentages?
    • Low <55%
    • Moderate 56-70%
    • High >70%
  35. How is the Glycemic number impacted?
    • 1 startch structure
    • 2 Fiber content
    • 3 ways food processed
    • 4 macronutrients attached to it- fat, protein which lower #
  36. What is chronic insulin output?
    When insulin is released in response to hyperglycemia due to HGL foods.
  37. Harmful effects of Chronic Insulin output
    • 1 Have high triglycerides in blood
    • 2 Have smaller LDL particals
    • 3 Increase risk of atherosclerosis
    • 4 Increase storage of fat
    • 5 Increase blood clot formations
    • 6 Speeds up hunger
    • 7 Cells become resistant to insulin which starts glucagon thus dbl increases sugar!
Card Set
Exercise Physiology
Maximizing Human Performace Through Nutrition ppt