1. Describe the 2 types of respiration.
    (1) Pulmonary Respiration = ventilation (breathing) and the exchange of gases (O2 and CO2) in the lungs

    (2) Cellular Respiration = O2 utilisation and CO2 production by the tissues
  2. What are the two main functions of the respiratory system?
    (1) gas exchange between environment and the body

    (2) regulation of acid-base balance during exercise
  3. Describe the nose.
    • Provided an airway for respiration
    • Moistens and warms entering air
    • Filters inspired air
  4. Describe the Pharynx.
    • Connects nasal cavity and mouth to the larynx
    • Common pathway for food and air
  5. Describe the 3 functions of the Larynx (voice box).
    • Provide opening for air and food
    • Voice production
    • The epiglottis - prevents food going into the trachea
  6. Describe the Trachea (windpipe).
    • Comprises of rings of cartilage
    • Descends from the larynx and divides into two primary bronchi
  7. Describe the Alveoli.
    • At the end of the bronchioles
    • Provide a thin barrier and very large surface area for gas exchange by diffusion
  8. What are the components of the 'conducting zone' (5) and what does it do?
    • Components: nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchiole tree
    • Conducts air to the 'respiratory zone'
    • Humidifies, warms and filters air
  9. What are the components of the 'respiratory zone' (3) and what does it do?
    • Components: respiratory bronchioles, alveoli ducts, alveoli
    • Exchange of gases between air and blood
  10. What is the oxygen cascade?
    Oxygen passively diffusing from air to cells
  11. Explain inspiration.
    From contraction of the diaphragm, the intrapleural pressure falls, allowing air to flow into lungs
  12. Explain expiration.
    • Stretched lung tissue recoils, releasing air passively (during quiet breathing)
    • Changes in volume cause changes in pressure which allows for the flow of gases
  13. Explain Boyle's Law (volume and pressure).
    • Change in volume causes change in pressure.
    • Increase volume = decreased pressure
    • Decreased volume = increased pressure
  14. Explain Dalton's Law (partial pressure of gases).
    Total pressure of a gass mixture = sum of pressures each gas would exert independently.
  15. Acid-base balance: What does increased lactic acid production result in?
    • Increased concentration of hydrogen ions
    • Decreased pH
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