1. Endocardioum
    innermost layer of the heart. it lines heart muscle and covers the heart valves
  2. Myocardium
    The middle and thickest layer of the heart.
  3. Epicardium
    also known as visceral pericardium. it is the outermost layer.
  4. Tricuspid valve
    Separates the right atrium and right ventricle.
  5. Mirtal valve aka Bicuspid valve.
    separates the left atrium and left ventricle
  6. Aortic valve aka semilunar valve
    located between the right ventricle and the Aorta
  7. Pulmonic valve aka semilunar valve.
    located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery.
  8. what supplies oxygen to the mucle of the heart, and empties into the right atrium
    Coronary atreries.
  9. Excitability
    the ability of cardiac mucle cells to respond to an outside stimulus. excitability may be increased as a result of epinephrine and norepinephrine.
  10. Base of the heart aka top of the heart is located at the
    second intercostal space.
  11. Septum
    separates the left and right halves of the heart.
  12. Apex of the heart
    is located at the fifth intercostal space.
  13. Atrial kick
    is the surge of blood pushed into the ventricles as a result of atrial contraction.
  14. Contraction phases of the heart is known as
    Systole the top number of a blood pressure.
  15. The relaxation phase of the heart is known as
    Diastole the bottom number of a blood pressure.
  16. Limb lead
    six lead directly monitor electrodes on the arms and legs. Three are standard leads and three are augmented leads.
  17. Standard leads
    aka Bipolar lead because it directly monitors two electrodes, Leads 1,2,3 are standard limb leads.
  18. Augmented lead
    aka unipolar lead because it directly monitors only one electrode. augmented lead is very slight. Leads aVR, aVL, aVF are sugmented limb leads.
  19. precordial lead aka chest lead.
    Anodes or posititve electrodes, of these six unipolar leads are placed arcoss the ches in specific pattern.
  20. Intra-atrial lead
    a specifically designed electrode wire V lead advanced intravenously. from the internal jugular, subclvian, or femoral vein into the right atrial cavity.
  21. Telementry
    the transmission of ECG signals via radio waves.
  22. V1 precordial lead is placed
    Fourth intercostal space, to the right of the sternum
  23. V2
    Fourth intercostal space to the left of the sternum.
  24. V3
    Fifth intercostal space imdway between v2 and v4
  25. v4
    fifth intercostal space on the left midclavicular line. Which is mid way of the clavical
  26. v5
    fifth intercostal space midway between v4 and v6
  27. v6
    • fifth intercostal space on the left midaxillary line
    • , mid way of the axilla
  28. Oscilloscope
    a monitor or tv type device that show the tracing of the electrical activity of the heart.
  29. Anode
    the positive electrode of an ECG lead.
  30. the right leg......
    is never used for ECG tracings it serves as an electrical ground.
  31. Polarization
    the electrical state of the heart at rest, in which the electrical charge on the outside of muscle cells is negative in relation to the inside.
  32. Depolarization
    A change of polarity. it is the electrical discharge that precedes contraction.
  33. Baseline
    an indication as on an ECG tracing of no electrical charge or activity. It is also known as an isoelectric line.
  34. Repolarization
    the restoraton of a cell to its orginal pattern of charge. It is a return to polarization form the depolarized state.
  35. A small upward curve that represents the contraction of the atria and is thus a measure of the atrial rate.
    P WAVE
  36. QRS complex
    the Q, R, and S waves whih correlate with the contraction of the ventricles.
  37. T wave
    an upward curve that repe\resents the recovery or repolarization of the ventricles.
  38. U wave is seen in patients with
    low potassium levesl in their blood.
  39. P-R interval
    includes the P wave and the stright line connecting it to the QRS complex. It represents the time it takes for the electrical impulse to travel from the SA node to the AV node.
  40. Q-T intreval
    includes the QRS comples and S-T segment and Twave. It represents the time it takes for the ventricles to contract and recover, or repolarize.
  41. S-T segment
    connects the end of the QRS complex with the beginning of the T wave. It represents the time between contraction of the ventricles and recovery.
  42. Asystole
    absence of cardiac electrical activity, represented as a stright line on the ECG.
  43. Defection
    deviatin up or down from zero on the isoelectric line.
  44. Cardiac output
    the amount of blood ejected by the left ventricle into the aorta in 1 minute.
  45. Wandering baseline
    a shift in the baseline from the center position for that lead. caused by muscle movement and mechanical problems.
  46. Flat line
    a flat line on the tracing of one of the leads is typically caused by a loose or disconnected wire.
  47. Ectopy
    placement outside the usual location.
  48. ectopic beat.
    a beat having an etopic focus a site of impulse formationlocated somewhere other than the SA node.
  49. Bigeminy
    a type of arrhythmia in which every other beat is ectopic or premature.
  50. Premature ventricular contraction PVC
    can cause ischemia, myocardial infaraction,or congestive heart failure CHF.
  51. Acardia
    the absence of the heart.
  52. acardiac rhythm
    the absence of cardiac rhythm. it is called asystole.
  53. Atrial fibrillation
    incomplete irregular and rapid contraction of the atria between 350 to 500 per min.
  54. atrial flutter
    contraction of the atria between 250 and 350 per minute
  55. Ventricular fibrillation
    cessation of coordinated ventricular contraction. untreated ventricular fibrillation leads to cardiac arrest.
  56. Ventricular flutter
    contraction of the ventricles between 150 and 300 per min. it is a dangerous rhythm and should be reported immediately.
  57. Agonal rhythm
    the rhythm of a dying heart, usually ventricular, extreamely slow and irregular and becoming slower to the point of asystole.
  58. Cardiodynia
    pain in the heart aka cardialgia.
  59. Cardiorrhexis.
    rupture of the heart wall
  60. Aortic aneurysm
    ballooning of the aorta.
  61. Capture
    the successful depolarization of an atrium or ventricle achieved, by atrifical pacemaker.
  62. Cardioversion
    the administration of timed electrical shocks for the purpose of correctin certain arrhythmias or restoring normal rhythm.
  63. Cardioplasty
    surgical repair of the heart.
  64. Cardiorrhaphy
    the suturing of the heart muscle.
Card Set
ECG medical assisting