Drivers Test

  1. Solid Stream Nozzles
    Smooth finish waterway contributes to both shape and reach of stream

    Used on handlines @ 50 psi

    Used on master streams @ 80 psi
  2. Flow from a Solid Stream Nozzle
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    • GPM - gallons per minute
    • 29.7 - constant
    • d - diameter of orifice
    • NP - nozzle pressure
  3. Master Streams
    Flows are usually 350 gpm or greater

    Fog master streams @ 100 psi

    Smooth bore master streams @ 80 psi
  4. Nozzle Reaction for Solid Stream Nozzle
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    • NR - nozzle reaction
    • 1.57 - constant
    • d - diameter of nozzle
    • NP - nozzle pressure
  5. Nozzle Reaction for Fog Stream Nozzle
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    • NR - nozzle reaction
    • 0.0505 - constant
    • Q - total flow thru nozzle in gpm
    • NP - nozzle pressure in psi
  6. Friction Loss
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    • FL - friction loss
    • C - friction loss coefficient
    • Q - flow rate in hundreds of gpm
    • L - hose length in hundred of feet
  7. Appliance Pressure Loss
    10 psi for each appliance in hose assembly when flowing 350 gpm or more

    25 psi in all master stream appliances
  8. Elevation Pressure
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    • EP - elevation pressure
    • H - height
  9. Hand Method for 2 1/2" Hose
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  10. Hand Method for 1 3/4" Hose
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  11. NFPA 1002
    Standard for Fire Apparatus Driver/Operator Professional Qualifications
  12. Hearing Requirements
    Reject for hearing loss of 40 decibels or more @ 500-1000-2000 Hz

    Reject for hearing loss of 40 decibels or more @ 500-1000-2000-3000 Hz
  13. Vision Requirements
    Required that firefighters have a corrected far visual acuity of 20/40 with contact lenses or spectacles
  14. NFPA 1500
    Standard on Fire Department Occupational Safety and Health Program
  15. NFPA 1901
    Standard for Automotive Fire Apparatus
  16. Fire Pumper
    • Intake/discharge pump connections
    • Pump and engine controls and gauges
    • Hoses - intake, supply, attack

    Minimum pump capactiy - 750 gpm
  17. Quint
    • Aerail device
    • Ground ladders
    • Water tank
    • Fire hose
    • Fire pump - at least 750 gpm
  18. Mobile Water Suppy
    As per NFPA 1901, must carry at least 1000 gal of water
  19. NFPA 414
    Standard for Aircraft Rescue and Firefighting Vehicles
  20. Braking System
    • ABS - reduce chance of skid
    • Apparatus must be brought to complete stop from speed of 20 mph in at least 35'
    • Parking brake must hold apparaus on 20% grade
    • Air pressure must bulid up w/in 60 sec
    • Air Pressure Protection Valve - prevents operation of air horn if reserviour drops below 80 psi
  21. Repair
    To restore or replace that which becomes inoperable
  22. Maintenance
    Keeping the apparatus in state of usefulness or readiness
  23. NFPA 1071
    Standard for Emergency Vehicle Technician Professional Qualifications
  24. First six months after apparatus is received:
    • Wash frequently w/cold water to harden paint
    • Use garden hose w/o nozzle to apply water - stream from end of hose no longer than 1 foot
    • Never remove dust/grit by dry rubbing
    • Use good automotive shampoo
    • Do not use extremely hot water or wash while surface is hot
    • Rinse loose dirt prior to shampoo and water
    • Use approved solutions to remove grease/tar
    • Dry vehicle with clean chamois
  25. Wax
    Should not be applied until paint at least six months old
  26. Fuel gauge
    As rule of thumb, it is generally best to keep fuel tank at least 3/4 full at all times
  27. Load squencer
    Turns various lights on at specified intervals so that start-up electrical load for all devices does not occur at same time
  28. Load Monitor
    Watches system for added electrical loads that threaten to overload system; When overload occurs, load monitor will shut down less important electrical equipment to prevent overload (load shedding)
  29. Steering Wheel
    • Check for proper adjustment and reaction
    • Steering wheel play should be no more than 10o in either direction
    • Steering wheel w/20" diameter equals about 2" play in either direction
  30. Check tires and wheels
    • Check each lug nut by hand for looseness
    • Check for proper tire inflation as recommended by manufacturer
    • Check valve stem condition
    • Check tire condition - proper tire type, tread depth, tread seperation, and wear
  31. Clutch free play
    The distance that the pedal must be pushed before the throw-out bearing actually contacts the clutch release fingers
  32. Test road brakes
    Allow apparatus to move forwar @ 5 mph, push down on brake pedal firmly - apparatus should stop within 20'
  33. SAE
    • Society of Automotive Engineers; indicates viscosity of oil
    • Do not mix different types of engine oil
  34. Batteries
    • Produce hydrogen gas when being charged
    • Red cable to +
    • Black cable to frame
  35. Weekly inspections
    • Flush pump with clean water
    • Check and clean intake strainers
    • Check pump gear box for proper oil level and traces of water
    • Operate pump primer w/all pump valves closed
    • Operate change over valve
    • Check packing glands for excessive leaks
    • Operate pump pressure control device
    • Test accuracy of foam proportioning system
  36. Goal of driver/operator
    To get apparatus and crew to scene in expedient, yet safe and efficient manner
  37. Firefighter Injury and Deaths
    • 20% - 25% caused by vehicle collisions
    • 25 firefighter deaths per year by vehicle collisions and rollovers
    • Intersections most frequent and most severe
  38. Fire Apparatus Collision Causes
    • Improper backing of apparatus
    • Reckless driving by public
    • Excessive speed by fire apparatus driver
    • Lack of driving skill and experience by driver
    • Poor apparatus design and maintenance
  39. Excessive speed may lead to:
    • Losing control of apparatus on a curve or adverse road surface - which may cause vehicle to leave road surface, roll over, or strike another vehicle/object
    • Driver unable to stop in time to avoid collision with another vehicle/object
  40. Driver error cause of collisions
    • Overconfidence in one's driving ability
    • Inability to recognize dangerous situation
    • False sense of security b/c of good driving record
    • Misunderstanding of apparatus capabilities
    • Lack of knowledge about how to operate controls of apparatus in emergency
  41. Inability to recognize dangerous situation:
    42% of all collisions - driver not aware of problem until too late to correct it
  42. "Homebuilt Vehicles"
    • Often overloaded
    • Have high centers of gravity
    • On chasiss that were worn out before conversion
    • Water tanks improperly baffled
    • Chasiss not designed for the weight of water
  43. Water weight
    • One gallon of water weighs 8.33 lbs
    • One gallon of gasoline weighs 5.6 lbs
    • One gallon of fuel oil weighs 7.12 lbs
  44. Apparatus with high center of gravity are prone to rollover accidents
  45. May be exempt from driving regulations if responding to an emergency:
    • Concerning speed
    • Direction of travel
    • Direction of turns
    • Parking
  46. Most driving regulations:
    • Pertain to dry, clear roads during daylight conditions
    • Adjust speeds for wet roads, darkness, fog, or any condition that makes driving more hazardous
  47. Start vehicle as soon as possible to let it warm up; 3-5 min on nonemergency responses
  48. Never operate battery switch while vehicle engine is running
  49. Starter control should be operated in intervals of no more than 30 sec, with a rest of 60 sec between each try
  50. Lugging
    Occurs when the throttle is applied while the transmission in in too high a gear for given set of conditions
  51. Long idiling periods
    • Result in the use of 1/2 gallon of fuel per hour
    • Buildup of carbon in injectors, valves, pistons, and valve seats
    • Misfiring b/c of injector carboning
    • Damage to turbocharger shaft seals
  52. If engine must be left idling for extended period of time
    Set engine to idle at 900 - 1,100 rpm
  53. Defensive Driving Techniques
    • Anticipate other drivers actions
    • Estimate visual lead time
    • Know braking and reaction times
    • Combat skids
    • Know evasive tactics
    • Have knowledge of weight transfer
  54. Hose loading should be done while driving slowly forward - avoid backing the apparatus
  55. Anticipating Others Actions
    • Aim high in steering
    • Get the big picture
    • Keep your eyes moving
    • Leave yourself an "out"
    • Make sure others can see and hear you
  56. Total Stopping Distance
    The sum of the drivers reaction distance and the vehicle's braking distance
  57. Reaction distance
    The distance a vehicle travels while a driver is transferring the foot from the accelerator to the brake pedal after perceiving the need to stopping
  58. Braking distance
    The distance the vehicle travels from the time the brakes are applied until the apparatus comes to a complete stop
  59. At speeds above 50 mph, an emergency vehicle may "outrun" the effective range of its audible warning device
  60. Siren operating on vehicle moving at 40 mph:
    Can project 300' in front of vehicle
  61. Siren operating on vehicle moving at 60 mph:
    Can project only 12' or less in front of vehicle
  62. When more than one emergency vehicle is responding along the same route:
    Units should travel at least 300 - 500 feet apart
  63. Most common causes of skids:
    • Driving too fast for road conditions
    • Failing to properly appreciate weight shifts of heavy apparatus
    • Failing to anticipate obstacles
    • Improper use of auxiliary braking devices
    • Improper maintenance of tire air pressure and adequate tread depth
  64. Visual lead time:
    • Practice looking 12 sec ahead on city streets
    • 20 sec ahead on highways
  65. Momentary delay for air brake systems
    Approx 0.4 sec in the time from which the driver pushes down on the brake pedal until sufficient air pressure is sent to the brake to operate
  66. Passing other vehicles:
    • Always travel in the innermost lane on multilane roads
    • Avoid passing vehicles on their right side
    • Make sure you can see that the opposing lanes of traffic are clear of oncoming traffic if you must cross the center line
    • Avoid passing other emergency vehicles if at all possible
  67. Automatic tire chains lose effectiveness:
    • In snow deeper than 8"
    • When vehicle moving slow or in reverse
  68. Takes 3 to 15 times more distance for vehicle to come to complete stop on snow and ice
  69. NFPA 1451
    Standard for a Fire Service Vehicle Operations Training Program
  70. Practical Driving Exercises
    • Alley dock
    • Serpentine course
    • Confined space turnaround
    • Diminishing clearance
    • Road test
  71. Collapse zone
    Equal to 1 1/2 times the height of building
  72. Inside/outside method
    • Building less than 5 stories - pumper inside and aerial outside
    • Building more than 5 stories - pumper outside and aerial inside
  73. Supporting FDC
    • Position as close as possible to FDC
    • If hydrant nearby - connect to both the hydrant and FDC
  74. Drafting Ops
    • Identify suitable drafting locations during pre-incident plans
    • Minimize lift distance
    • Connect hose and then move apparatus into position
    • Hard intake should not rest on bottom of water source
  75. Dry Hydrant
    Consists of an intake hose conneciton on the shore and length of pipe equipped with strainer that extends into water supply source
  76. Dry hydrant connection
    • Should be at least 15" above ground level
    • Should be 2' of water all around strainer
  77. Hydrant Ops:
    Large diameter intake hose connection
    • Preferred type of connection to hydrant is large diameter intake hose
    • Intake hose sections commonly 10' - 50' long
    • If front wheels of apparatus turned to a 45o angle, driver can easily adjust distance to or from hydrant by moving unit forwar/backward
  78. Hydrant Ops:
    Side intake connections
    • Stop short of hydrant
    • Put two full twists in hose to min kinks
    • Sexless couplings - no twist; may come apart
    • Avoid injury - stand behind hydrant when opening valve
  79. Hydrant Ops:
    Front or rear connections
    • Stop pumper few feet short
    • Aim pumper in direction of hydrant @ 45o
  80. Connection to 2 1/2" hydrant outlets
    • Only when max flow not needed or when LDH unavailable
    • Limits amount of water available
    • High amount of friction loss
  81. Dual Pumping Ops
    • One strong hydrant supplies two pumpers
    • Better use of water
    • Shorter hose lays
    • Second pumper supplied by water passing thru first pumper (connected intake to intake)
  82. Tandem Pumping Ops
    • Short form of relay pumping
    • More pressure needed than single engine able to supply
    • First pumper connects to water supply and then "pumps" water thru discharge to next pumper
    • Pumps acting in series
  83. Common function of wildland fire apparatus
    • Structure protection
    • Direct fire attack
  84. Staging
    • Level I - more than one unit responding to incident
    • Level II - large number of emergency vehicles responding to same incident; need staging officer
    • Staging officer - communicates resource availability to IC or planning section
    • Companies in staging must be ready to respond w/in 3 min
  85. Highway Ops
    • At least one lane of traffic should be closed off
    • Apparatus should be placed between flow of traffic and firefighters working the incident
    • Apparatus act as shield - positioned at angle
    • Front wheels turned away from incident
    • Position additional apparatus 150' to 200' behind shielding apparatus to act as barrier
  86. Hazardous Materials Incident
    • First arriving unit should never procede until material is identified
    • Approach incident from upwind and uphill
  87. Hot Zone
    Area surrounding the incident that is closest to the release and may have been contaminated by release material
  88. Warm Zone
    • Area abutting hot zone and extending to the cold zone
    • Used to support workers in hot zone
    • Used to decontaminate personnel and equipment exiting hot zone
  89. Cold Zone
    • Encompasses warm zone
    • Used to carry out all other support functions of incident
    • IC, staging, and triage/treatment located within cold zone
  90. More than 60% of calls to which most FDs respond are emergency medical incidents
  91. Railroad Ops
    • Treat every rail as active
    • Never position truck on rails
    • Try to position unit on same side of tracks as incident
    • Run hose beneath rails or use aerial apparatus to run hose on over top of area
  92. Water
    • Most common fire extinguishing agent
    • Between 32o and 212o exists as liquid
    • Below 32o - solid, ice
    • Above 212o - gas, water vapor
    • Considered to be incompressible
    • Heaviest close to freezing
    • Lightest close to boiling point
  93. Water generally considered to weigh 62.5 lbs/ft3 or 8.33 lb/gal
  94. BTU
    British Thermal Unit - the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1lb of water 1oF
  95. Water absorbs five times as much heat as does an equal amount of CO2
  96. Specific Heat
    Measure of heat-absorbing capacity of substance
  97. Boiling Point
    Temperature at which liquid absorbs enough heat to change to vapor
  98. At 212oF water expands approx 1700 times its original volume
  99. Pressure
    • Force per unit area
    • A 1 in2 column of water 1' high exerts a pressure at the base of 0.434 psi
    • 2.304' of water column exerts pressure of 1psi at the base
  100. Six Principles of Pressure
    • Fluid pressure is perpendicular to any surface on which it acts
    • Fluid pressure at a point in a fluid at rest is the same intensity in all directions
    • Pressure applied to a confined fluid from without is transmitted equally in all directions
    • The pressure of a liquid in an open vessel is proportional to its depth
    • The pressure of a liquid in an open vessel is proportional to the density of the liquid
    • The pressure of a liquid on the bottom of a vessel is independent of the shape of the vessel
  101. Types of pressure
    • Atmospheric
    • Head
    • Static
    • Normal operating
    • Residual
    • Flow
  102. Atmospheric Pressure
    • At sea level - 14.7 psi
    • Pressure of 1 psi moves column of mercury raise 2.04"
    • At sea level Hg = 14.7(2.04) = 29.9"
  103. Vacuum
    Pressure less than atmospheric
  104. Head pressure
    • Height of water supply above discharge orifice
    • To convert head in feet to head pressure: divide # feet by 2.304
    • The number of feet that 1psi will raise 1in2 column of water
  105. Normal operating pressure
    • Pressure found in water distribution system during normal consumption demands
    • Difference between static and normal operating pressure is the friction caused by water flowing thru various pipes, valves, and fittings in system
  106. Residual Pressure
    Part of total avialable pressure not used to overcome friction loss or gravity while forcing water thru pipe, fittings, fire hose, and adapters
  107. Flow (velocity) pressure
    Forward velocity pressure at discharge opening while water is flowing
  108. Above sea level - atmospheric pressure decreases approx .5 psi for every 1000'
  109. Elevation
    Refers to the center line of pump or bottom of static water supply source above or below ground level
  110. Altitude
    Position of object above or below sea level
  111. When nozzle is located above the pump - pressure loss
    When nozzle is located below the pump - pressure gain
  112. Causes of friction loss in fire hose
    • Movement of water molecules against each other
    • Linings in the fire hose
    • Couplings
    • Sharp bends
    • Change in hose size or orifice by adapters
    • Improper gasket size
  113. Four Principles of Friction Loss
    • All other conditions the same, friction loss varies directly with the length of hose or pipe
    • When hoses are same size, friction loss varies inversely as the fifth power of the diameter of the hose - that's the advantage of larger size hose
    • For a given flow velocity, friction loss is approx the same, regardless of the pressure on water
  114. Water practically incompressible
    • Pressure of 30,000 psi required to reduce the volume of water 1%
    • Same volume of water supplied to fire hose under pressure at one end will be discharged at other end
    • Size of hose determines velocity for given volume of water
    • Smaller the hose, greater the velocity needed to deliver same volume
  115. Critical Velocity
    Velocity increased beyond limits, friction becomes so great that entire stream is agitated by resistance
  116. Reducing Friction Loss
    • Decrease hose length
    • Increase hose diameter
    • Remove sharp bends in hose lay
  117. Water Hammer
    Water flowing thru pipe or hose suddenly stopped results in energy surge being transmitted in opposite direction - often at original pressure
  118. Municipal water supply consists of:
    • Source of water supply
    • Means of moving water
    • Water processing or treatment facilities
    • Water distribution system, including storage
  119. Source of water supply
    • Ground water
    • Surface water
  120. Means of moving water
    • Direct pumping
    • Gravity
    • Combination systems
  121. Processing or Tretment Facilities
    • Coagulation
    • Sedimentation
    • Filtration
    • Addition of chemicals, bacteria, or other organisms
    • May also add oxygen/fluoride
  122. Water distribution system
    • Grid system
    • Feeder
    • Secondary feeder
    • Distributors
  123. Residential Areas
    • Recommended size of pipe for fire hydrant supply mains is 6"
    • Cross connecting mains no more than every 600'
  124. Business or industrial mains should be 8"
  125. Valves should be operated at least once a year
  126. Valves
    • Indicating - shows wheter valve is open or closed
    • Nonindicating
  127. Fog Stream Nozzles
    • Periphery
    • Deflection
    • Impinge
  128. Categories of master stream devices
    • Monitor - stream direction and angle can be changed while water being discharged
    • Turret pipe - deck gun
    • Deluge set - fixed, direction and angle cannot be changed while discharging water
    • Elevated master stream - placed on end of aerial device
  129. Special Purpose Nozzles
    • Broken stream nozzle
    • Water curtain nozzle
    • Piercing nozzle
    • Chimney nozzle
  130. 2 1/2" Hand Method
    • Select finger to which desired flow has been assigned
    • Multiply the number at tip of finger by first digit at base of finger
    • Examples:
    • finger one - 2(1.0)
    • finger seven - 7(3.5)
  131. Positive displacement pump
    • Rotary or piston types
    • Use positive action to move air and water
    • Used to expel air - priming pumps
  132. Centrifugal pump
    • Impeller and casing
    • Water inroduced into eye of impeller
    • Impeller rotates at 2,000 - 4,000 rpms
    • Greater speed of impeller - greater pressure developed
    • Impeller mounted off center
  133. Parallel (volume) pumping
    Two stage pump - both impellers receive water from source and delivers to discharge
  134. Series (pressure) pumping
    • Two stage pump - water introduced to first impeller and then discharged to next impeller and then discharged to create greater pressure
    • Less volume
  135. If necessary to pump more than 1/2 rated volume capacity of pump - changeover (transfer) valve must be in parallel (volume) position
  136. Hydrant Color
    • Light blue - Class AA - 1500gms or greater
    • Green - Class A - 1000 - 1499 gpm
    • Orange - Class B - 500 - 999 gpm
    • Red - Class C - less than 500 gpm
  137. Ops from static water supply source (drafting)
    • Create negative pressure in pump
    • Atmospheric pressure will force water up hose into pump
    • Increasing height of pump will decrease total pump capacity
    • Max amount of vacuum most pumps develop is approx 22" Hg
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  142. Drafting cont.
    • Should be a min. of 2' of water all around strainer
    • Object can be placed over strainer to prevent whirlpool effect
    • Low level strainers sit at bottom allow water to be drafted to depth of 2"
    • Best indication of cavatation is lack of reaction on pressure gauge to change in throttle setting
  143. Fire pumps required to pump capacity at 10' of lift
    Less lift greater capacity
    More lift less capacity
  144. For effective draft operation, max. lift:
  145. Priming pump and beginnign draft ops
    • Two stage pump should be in parallel
    • Engine set between 1000 and 1200 rpm for primer pump
    • Operate primer control until all air removed and steady stream of water is discharged
    • Entire priming requires 10-15 sec
    • Most common cause of inability to prime is air leak
    • Common place for blockage is at strainer
  146. Sprinkler Ops
    • First arriving engine should located FDC and nearest hydrant
    • Indication of actual fire, min. of two 2 1/2" hoselines should be connected to FDC and supply line to hydrant
    • Confirm presence of fire prior to pumping into system
    • Rule of thumb to discharge 150 psi into FDC
  147. Standpipe Ops
    • Do not use house or standpipe lines - house lines provided for occupants
    • Fire attack crews bring own hoselines
    • Connect attack lines to standpipe outlet near point of attack - usually on floor below fire floor
  148. Wet pipe system
    Contain water under pressure and are redy to be used as soon as lines can be attached to outlet
  149. Dry pipe system
    • Must be supplied with water from a pumper that attaches to standpipe FDC
    • Time delay when charged b/c of air that must be expelled from system
  150. Standpipe Pump Discharge Pressure depends:
    • Pressure loss in standpipe (25 psi)
    • Friction loss in hose lay from pumper to FDC
    • Friction loss in hose on fire floor
    • Nozzle pressure for type of nozzle employed
    • Elevation pressure due to height of building
  151. Lift
    • Elevation difference between the static water supply and pump intake
    • Pump higher than water source
  152. Maximum lift
    • The max. height to which any amount of water may be raised thru a hard intake hose to the pump
    • In most circumstances, max.lift is no more than 25'
    • At max. lift, the volume of water available is too low to be of practical value
  153. Dependable lift
    • Height a column of water may be lifted in sufficient quantity to provide a reliable fire flow
    • Every fire pump should have a dependable lift of a least 14.7'
    • All fire pumps rated when drafting from a lift of 10' thru 20' of hard intake hose
  154. Pump able to deliver only 70% of capacity at 15' lift and 60% at 20' lift
  155. Natural water supply source
    Lakes, ponds, streams, rivers, and oceans
  156. Man-made Static Water Supply
    • Cisterns
    • Private water storage tanks
    • Ground reservoirs
    • Swimming pools
    • Agricultural irrigation systems
  157. Relay Ops
    • Uses a pumper at water supply source to pump water under pressure to next pumper in line
    • This pumper boosts pressure to supply next pumper
    • Until water is reaches attack pumper
  158. Source pumper
    • Pumper connected to water supply
    • Should be pumper with largest pump capacity
  159. Relay Pumper
    • In-line pumper(s) connected within relay that receive water from source or another relay pumper
    • Boosts pressure then supplies water to next pumper in relay
  160. Attack Pumper
    • Engine located at scene that will be receiving water from relay
    • Supplies attack lines and appliances as needed for fire suppression
  161. Hose Tender
    Carries a mile or more of LDH (4" or larger)
  162. In-line relay valve
    Allows late arriving apparatus to hook up after relay is operating and boost the pressure w/o interrupting the relay operation
  163. Basic relay operation based on:
    • Amount of water required at emergency scene
    • Distance from emergency scene to water source
  164. Constant Pressure Relay Method
    Keep pressure throughout relay @ 175 psi
  165. Water Shuttle Ops
    • Water tenders deliver load to scene, travel to fill site, reload, and return to scene and deliver water - repeat.
    • Require pumpers and tenders
  166. Water tenders recommended to have three dump valves:
    • One on each side
    • One on the rear
    • Gravity dumps - usually 8" or largerJet dumps - small diameter in-line discharge inserted into piping of large tank discharge
  167. Water tanks must have adequate venting:
    • Prevents tank collapse
    • Vents need to be completely open
  168. Circular shuttle route is most desirable
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  171. Mechanical foam
    • Must be proportioned and aerated before use
    • To produce quality fire fighting foam, foam concentrate, water, air, and mechanical aeration are needed
  172. Foam concentrate
    Raw foam liquid in its storage container before being combined with water and air
  173. Foam proportioner
    Device that introduces foam conentrate into the water stream to make the foam solution
  174. Foam solution
    Miture of foam concentrate and water before the introduction of air
  175. Foam
    Completed product after air is introduced into the foam solution (finished foam)
  176. NFPA 11
    Standard for Low-, Medium-, and High-Expansion Foam
  177. Methods by which foam is proportioned:
    • Induction
    • Injection
    • Batch mixing
    • Premixing
  178. Class B foams
    • Hydrocarbons - float on water
    • Polar solvents - mix with water
    • Some Class B foams will work on both
    • Class B foams designed only for hydrocarbons will not extinguish polar solvent fires
    • Many foams intended for polar solvent fires may be used on hydrocarbon fires
  179. How foam works:
    • Foam works by forming a blanket on burning fuel
    • Foam blanket excludes oxygen and stops burning process
    • Water in foam is slowly released as foam breaks down - providing cooling effect on fuel
  180. Class A foam
    • Effective for fires in structures, wildland settings, coal mines, tire salvage, and other incidents involving similar deep seated fuels
    • Can be proportioned at different concentrates to achieve specific objectives (0.1 - 1.0%)
    • Dry foam (thick) - adjust to higher percentage; suitable for exposure protection and fire breaks
    • Wet foam (thin) - foam rapidly sink into fuel's surface; adjust to lower percentages
    • Reduce surface tension of water, providing better penetration
    • Shelf life of 20 yrs
    • Avoid direct skin contact - corrosive and supercleaning characteristics
  181. Foam storage
    • Pails - 5 gallon, most common for fire service
    • Barrels - 55 gal
    • Tote tanks - 275 gal
    • Apparatus tanks - 20 - 200 gal
  182. Low expansion foam
    20:1 - 20 parts finished foam for every part foam solution
  183. Medium expansion foam
    20:1 - 200:1
  184. High expansion foam
    200:1 and greater
  185. Foam Application Techniques
    • Roll-on method
    • Bank-on method
    • Rain-down method
  186. Rules and regs replacement value
  187. General Orders
    Will be used to change, alter, or amend fire dept rules and regs and shall be kept in a permenant file
  188. Special Orders
    Will cover a specific instance where rules and regs will be changed, altered, or amended for a specified period of time and may be kept in a permenant file
  189. General Bulletins
    Used to change, alter, amend, or clarify fire dept policy or procedures and for information of a permenant nature. Shall be kept in a permenant file
  190. Special Bulletins
    Will cover a specific instance where policy and procedure will be changed, altered, or amended for a specified period of time and may be discarded when period terminates; letters of appreciation and commendation will be posted for 30 days and then discarded
  191. Vaction leave
    1 1/4 working days per month
  192. Sick leave
    1 1/4 working days per month
  193. Leave of absence
    • Request in writing
    • Not to exceed 90 days
    • Any request over 30 days to one year must be submitted to the chief and forwarded to city manager for approval
  194. Drivers license
    Asst chief shall visually check license of each member every three months
  195. Accidents
    Captain shall notify chiefs of any accident that may disable appartus to the extent that it cannot proceed to emergency. On minor accidents where apparatus is able to proceed to emergency, a person shall be dropped off to obtain detailed info with names and addresses of all witnesses
  196. Drivers license (capt)
    All officers required to visually varify that all drivers have valid drivers license daily
  197. Registration of firearms - complete description
    Authorized firearms:
    • Barrel length 2" - 4"
    • Choice of make of weapon left to individual carrying firearm; weapon must be kept clean and in good working order
    • Modification for any on or off duty weapon is forbidden except to replace grips, sights, or refinish the firearm
    • Required on or off duty weapon shall be a .38 or .357 caliber double action revolver, with a five or six shot capacity; or a 9mm or .45 caliber semi-automatic with special approval from the fire chief
    • Carrying a firearm on duty, in the capacity of Peace Officer who is not in a distinct uniform shall wear his badge of office on his/her belt in plain view, on the sam side of the weapon
  198. Qualification
    • Shall include a demo of a working knowledge of firearm to range personnel
    • Also require that officer complete a designated range course
    • Range course fired for score; passing score must be obtained for each weapon registered with the department that will be used while acting as Peace Officer
    • Qualification shall require a passing score of 70% for every weapon
    • Qualification shall require that the score and description of weapon used in obtaining the score shall be kept on file
  199. Carrying of firearms
    While on duty, all firefighters acting in capacity of peace officer must be properly armed; while off duty officer may use discretion whether or not to carry firearm
  200. Handling of firearms
    • Officer shall at all times handle all firearms in a manner not to endanger the life of another officer, firefighter, or any innocent bystander
    • Dept inspection of firearm may be made at any time w/o notification by fire chief or designated appointee
    • Any firearm that does not meet dept standards shall be removed and officer may be disciplined
  201. No shotgun, carbines, rifle, or fully automatic firearm of any type or configuration may be carried by firefighter acting as peace officer while on duty
  202. Ammunition
    • No officer shall carry any of the following:
    • Armor piercing rounds
    • Tracer ammo
    • Glaser safety slug
    • Exploder rounds
    • Officers shall only carry ammo, on or off duty, that has been approved by dept
  203. Administrative Specialist II and I
    Specialist I shall be under supervision of admin specialist II
  204. Authority (fire marshal)
    Fire chief or fire marshal or any officer or member of fire dept designated by fire chief shall have the right or authority to enter any building or upon any premises in the city of brownsville at any reasonable business hour for the purpose of making investigations consistent with the duties imposed therein
  205. Authority to examine premises where fire occurs
    The fire marshal or fire chief shall have the authority at all times, day or night, when necessary in the performance of their duties to enter upon and examine any building or premises where any fire has occurred or any adjoining buildings or premises when in their judgment it is proper to do so
  206. Arson investigator
    All investigations of arson or attempted arson shall be done under the supervision of the fire chief
  207. Grooming regulations
    • Hair not allowed to grow below top of collar
    • Sides shall not extend below top of ear lobe - 1/3 of ear must show
    • Females must have hair securely pinned up - no flammable hair spray
    • Hair shall be well groomed whether max length or shorter
    • Sideburns - must not extend below bottom of ear lobe and not extend forward into seal area of mask; No hair in seal area
    • Mustache must be neatly trimmed and not extend below corner of mouth; Handlebar not permitted
    • Beards - not permitted; Must be clean shaven on duty
  208. Saluting
    • Salute national colors and national anthem while in uniform
    • Not in uniform - shall stand at attention and remove headgear as colors pass
  209. Reporting injuries
    Notify asap and no later than 24 hrs
  210. Flushing pump
    Pumps and all hose be flushed with hydrant water for at least 20 min
  211. Assuming Tour of Duty for Another Member
    • Any member who assumes the tour of duty for another member also assumes all duties and responsibilities pertaining to the tour of duty
    • If for some reason the member assuming tour of duty cannot report to duty for any reason, he is to notify his Assistant Chief and make an effort to find a replacement in this place
  212. Entering bars, taverns, and liquor stores
    • Members on duty or in uniform shall not enter or visit any bar, lounge, parlor, or club where liquor is sold or served except in the line of duty
    • No member in uniform on or off duty shall enter a liquor store to buy liquor
  213. Petitions
    No member shall circulate any petition relating to any dept policy unless received prior approval by fire chief
  214. Intoxication
    On or off duty, drinking or in possession of intoxicants while on duty or loitering where intoxicants are sold while in uniform is prohibited
  215. Racing to fires or emergencies
    • Strictly prohibited
    • When responding on the same street, units shall respond in a single file at a distance of at least 150' apart
  216. Warning signals
    • Permissible to use siren when making an emergency run
    • Sirens shall be used as little as possible w/in 200' of any hospital zone
  217. Blocking fire hydrants
    • Shall not stop apparatus in front of a fire hydrant
    • All apparatus when at a stop, shall be parallel with and as close as possible to curb
    • No apparatus or car shall be parked w/in 50' directly behind a ladder truck
  218. Evidence of Arson
    • Commanding officer shall notify dispatch to activate fire marshal
    • No salvage or overhaul to begin until released by arson investigator
  219. Procedure upon finding a corpse
    • Dead person found at scene - do not disturb body unless to prevent further damage or destruction
    • Notify commanding officer, who will notify fire dispatch, who will notify homicide division, medical examiner, and fire chief
  220. Valuables found at fire
    • Must be turned over the commanding officer, who will in turn give them to owner after proper identification
    • Report of contents and valuables turned over to individual will be submitted to fire chief
    • No proper identification available or owner cannot be found - property shall be sent to chiefs office along with report
  221. Mail boxes or mail trucks
    • Use CO2 or dry powder extinguisher when possible to prevent water damage
    • Postal authorities shall be notified
  222. Cause of fire
    • Commanding officer first at scene shall try to determine cause of fire based on evidence at scene
    • If unable to determine - call fire marshal/arson investigator
  223. Procedure upon arrest
    • Any member arrested or incarcerated must report the incident to his immediate shift commander or fire admin immediately
    • Any violation of this rule may be cause for disciplinary action
  224. Written accident statements
    Members shall not give any written statement concerning an accident of a fire dept vehicle to anyone, unless a member of city's legal department is present
  225. Drivers license
    • Must have valid drivers license in possession while operating vehicle
    • Failure to advise of any negative changes may lead up to disciplinary action
  226. Excessive speed
    • Excessive speed prohibited
    • When responding to alarm and light is red - driver shall slow down and stop if necessary until all traffic has stopped
    • Upon approaching a stop sign, slow down and do not proceed until other vehicles yield right of way
  227. Backing vehicle
    • Driver shall walk around vehicle to ensure no obstructions or personnel in the area
    • Look-out man - stationed at rear of vehicle
Card Set
Drivers Test
Study Notes