Criminology Exam 2

  1. According to the lecture, Social Constructionists employ a relativistic definition of crime whereby "Crime is..."
    Any act deemed criminal by the powerful
  2. According to the lecture, a crime based on "MALA IN SE" (Evil in and of itself) include:
    Aggravated assault, sexual assault, and simple assault
  3. According ot the lecture an example of crime based upon "MALA PROHIBITA" (wrong because it is prohibited) is:
    Gambling, prostitution, and smoking marijuana
  4. According to Lemert (1951), ___________ is precipitated by the negative self-stigmatization that results when others apply a label.
    Secondary Deviance
  5. According to labeling theory, once an individual has been labeled "criminal", that label becomes that person's ______________ or controlling public identification.
    Master Status
  6. According to Chambliss's article The Saints and the Roughnecks (1984), middle-class boys and lower-class boy differed significantly in:
    How agents of social control treated them.
  7. In response to negative criticisms of an overly harsh criminal justice process shaming those labeled as "criminal", John Braithwaite (1989) proposed the idea of:
    Reintegrative Shaming
  8. According to the Theory, labeling someone as "criminal" could end up as a
    Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
  9. According to the lecture, which is a source of incarceration disparities?
    Bias in law enforcement, bias in policy maknig, and differential involvement
  10. Which Conflict Theory is mostly concerned with estimating "conflict potential" and the construction of "legal norms"?
    Turk's Legal Order Theory
  11. In Legal Order Theory, Turk (1969) is inetersted in the relations between:
    Authorities and subjects
  12. Of the 3 modern conflict theorists discussed, Quinney is clearly themost philosophical, initially arguing that "reality is a state of mind" and that "there is no reason to believe in the objective existence of anything" Statements about subjectivity like these draw heavily upon the European tradition of:
    Philosophical Idealism
  13. Chambliss's Legal Reality Thoery stresses that legal sanctions tend to be enforced through bureaucratic organizations that:
    have their own interests and agendas
  14. In Chambliss's view, the criminal justice bureaucracies tend to treat which socioeconomic class the harshest?
    The lower class
  15. According to the labeling theory, what is the difference between Primary and Secondary Deviance?
    • Primary: Deviance just to be deviant
    • Secondary: Deviance due to a label of being "deviant"
  16. According to Chambliss's Legal reality Theory, attempts at bureaucratic efficiency compromise the official goal of impartial law enforcement. Briefly explain how departmental goals can cause biased policing.
    Police know a lot of crime happens in certain areas so in order to get their quota they will hang out there instead of patrolling in other places that could/probably have crime going on as well
  17. What is teh "Ceremony of Reintegration" in Braithwaite's Theory?
    • -The idea that criminals should meet with those they ahve done wrong to and apologize and be "reintegrated" into society.
    • Form of disintegrative shaming inteded to remove stigmatizing label
  18. Sexism exists when one gender is valued over and above the other. In Western culture where masculinity is valued over feminity, this sexism is caled:
  19. According to Feminist Theory, gender is:
    A social construction
  20. According to power control theory, almost all people are indoctrinated into patriarchy by:
    The Family
  21. According to your textbook the emphasis on power differences between men and women, due in large part to patriarchy, leads women into "powerless" types of crime such as:
    Prostituion and small-scale fraud
  22. Messerschmidt (1993) uses gender to construct a unique theory of crime which he calls "doing gender". In this model, the dominant cultural script that compels men to strive for competivtive individualism, independence, aggressiveness, and authority/control over others (all strong correlates of crime) is called:
    Hegemonic masculinity
  23. According to Messerschmidt's "doing gender", what other factors affect young men's abilities to display maleness?
    age, class, and race
  24. While conflict Theory is critical of power and structure, Post-Modern Theory is critical of:
    Knowledge and Science
  25. Conservative criminology appears to be most at odds with what body of theories?
    Critical criminology
  26. Based upon the way Broken Windows theory was interpreted, policy makers in the 1990s instituted police practices such as____________, in an attempt to preempt future crime.
    "Zero Tolerance" policing
  27. According to Hernstein and Murray's (1994) book The Bell Curve, what is the most robust predictor of crime?
  28. The "return of the Individual" to criminology sparked a
    New interested in Biosocial Theories, Renewed interest in Biological Positivism, and Renewed interest in Classical Theories
  29. According to evolutionary-based Cheater Theory, males have evolved two alternative reproductive strategies to ensure reproduction. For the sake of parsimony, these two approaches have been relabeled:
    "Cads" and "Dads"
  30. According to research in biosociology, which neurotransmitter is associated with violence or other forms of antisocial behavior?
    Dopamine, Serotonin, Neuroepinephrine
  31. According to the lecture on trait-based approaches, the Behavioral Activiation System (BAS) is like the __________________ on the human car
    gas pedal
  32. Explain how boys and girls are socialized differently according to John Hagan's power ctonrol theory.
    • Girls are more passive. They are controlled and more well-behaved
    • Boys are more aggressive. They are less controlled and act out more.
  33. According to the Age-Crime Curve, the approximate peak of offending over the life-course is at age
  34. According to the lecture, myelination is a process of brain maturation that starts in the rear of the brain and is initiated by
  35. A Developmental/Life-Course theory of pure continuity in offending is:
    Gottfredson and Hirschi's Low Self-Control theory
  36. According to the lecture about the Age-Crime Cruve, by age 28 almost __________ of former delinquents have desisted from offending.
  37. According to Moffitt, the small group of individuals that engage in anti-social behavior at every point in life is called the:
    Life-Course Persistent offenders
  38. Adolescent-Limited offenders tend to engage in benign, low-level offenses with little to no long-term consequences. Examples of these rebelliuos forms of delinquency include all of the following EXCEPT:
    Assault (not marijuana use, shoplifting, or vandalism)
  39. Persistence in offeending due to ____________ continuity is the result of carrying the same constellation of problematic traits from childhood to adulthood.
  40. According to Moffitt's original Developmental Taxonomy, ______________ are the larger group, containing nearly 90% of delinquents.
    Adolescent-Limited Offenders
  41. Life-couse Persistent Offenders tend to have childhood neuropsychological defects in:
    Executive Functioning and Verbal Intelligence
  42. While Sampson and Laub acknowldge the possibility of underlying pathological differences in chilhood, tey argue ttaht agents of informal social control like ________ can overcome negative child effecs like difficult temperament
    Effective parenting
  43. According to Sampson and Laub, persistence in offending is the result of:
    Cumulative Continuity and Cumulative Disadvantage
  44. According to Sampson and Laub, the 3 adult institutions of social onding, or "Turning Points" that can lead to desistance including all of the following EXCEPT:
    higher education (not employment, marriage, or the military)
  45. According to Sampson and Laub, persistence in offending is due in part to ___________ continuity, when an individual becomes ensnared in a deviant lifestyle due to the long-term negative consequences of earlier delinquency and crime
  46. According to Sampson and Laub, as an individual accrues more and more ______ by investing in meaningful adult institutions, he or she will grow less likely to offend because the risks become too "costly".
    Social Capital
  47. What is the "maturity gap" in Moffitt's Developmental Taxonomy and how does it cause Adolescent-Limited offending? (Hint: be sure to mention "social mimicry")
    • Maturity Gap: The Gap between biological and social mimicry
    • Adopt LCPs as deviant role models and "mimic" their social behavior
  48. According to sampson and Laub, what is "cumulative disadvantage" and how does it explain criminal persistence?
    Cumulative Disadvantage: Structural factors of a neighborhood (economic deprivation, social isolation, cultural disorganization, and family disruption) It blocks adult bonding opportunities.
  49. As measures of Contemporary Continuity, how are Homotypic behaviors different from Heterotypic behaviors?
    • Homotypic: Same physically agressive behaviors from childhood to adulthood
    • Heterotypic: Shift from physical to social agression (form changes but unerlying trait is the same)
Card Set
Criminology Exam 2
Criminology Exam 2