sheep/goat exam2

  1. What are the different names of pregnancy toxemia?
    Ketosis, twin lamb disease
  2. What is pregnancy toxemia?
    When a pregnant lamb is malnourished and all of her energy goes to her fetus and organs
  3. What are the symptoms of ketosis?
    No energy, no appetite, quiverring, down, blindness, death
  4. How is ketosis treated?
    IV glucose or drenching
  5. How much more milk is produced when a ewe has twins?
    50% more = 150%
  6. What does flushing mean?
    To increase body weight from average by feeding more, usually 30 days prior to breeding
  7. What is the gestation of a ewe?
    147 days
  8. How should a ewe be fed during pregnancy
    • First 100 days - enough for maintenance of body weight
    • Last 50 days - nutritional needs double
  9. How much does the fetus grow during the first 100 days
    1/3 of body weight
  10. What are potential problems if the ewe is underfed during pregnancy?
    • small/weak lambs
    • increase death loss
    • decreased growth rate
    • low milk/maternal instinct
    • low fleece wt
  11. When is the normal weaning period?
    60 days
  12. What is the earliest you can wean a lamb?
    45 days
  13. What is the process for drying out a ewe?
    • Day -2 no intake
    • Day -1 no intake
    • Day 0 wean
    • Day 1 no intake
    • Day 2 water only
    • Day 3 water only
  14. Why is it important to dry out the ewe?
    prevents mastitis
  15. What is the #1 cause of death in baby lambs?
    starvation - poor mothers
  16. What can cause disconnect between mother and lamb?
    a twin lamb, big nipples, mastitis, new mothers
  17. How soon after birth must the lamb nurse?
    within 2-3 hours, 50% loss of blood sugar during first 30 minutes
  18. What is important to have on hand during lambing?
    Sheep colostrum, milk replacer, feeding tubes
  19. What is the best choice for an orphan lamb?
    replacement ewe
  20. What is the bottle feeding process?
    Warm milk for first few days, switch to cold milk to keep them from over feeding, wean asap with high quality feed like soybean meal (26 days to 1 month)
  21. When does maternal instinct shut down if no lamb?
    a couple of days
  22. How do you get a ewe to accept a lamb?
    Immobilize the ewe and allow lamb to nurse
  23. What are reasons to wean early?
    • accellerated growth process
    • predators
    • poisonous plants
    • needle grass - get in eyes and wool
    • drought - ewe is struggling
    • accellerated lambing programs
  24. What is creep feeding?
    when the lambs are fed and the ewes can't get to the feed - gets digestive tract functioning
  25. What are important things to remember about creep feeding?
    Feeder should be adjustable, it should be available and interesting to the lambs, put out several kinds of feed and observe what they prefer - high quality, no roughage
  26. What are some antibiotics that are in some feeds?
    • aromycin - broad spectrum
    • decox - prevents coccidiosis
  27. What prevents urinary calculi and is it necessary?
    NH4Cl - No
  28. What is the Ca:P ratio?
  29. What is the nutritional needs for a growing lamb?
    • 60 - 90 days - 16% protein 4-5 mos - 12% protein
    • High energy
    • Forage - Ca:P ratio important
    • Selenium
  30. Why is selenium important?
    Sheep have a high requirement. Deficiency causes White Muscle Disease (muscle deterioration)
  31. When does selenium defiency occur?
    3 weeks after weaning
  32. How much does the average lamb gain per day?
    1 lb/day
  33. How do you feed replacement ewes?
    rate of gain is not important. Roughage is necessary to develop rumen digestion
  34. What are the nutritional needs for the ram?
    • Need to be in perfect shape during breeding season, flush last 30 - 60 days before turning out with ewes, will lose 20 - 30 lbs
    • Critical time for urinary calculi
  35. What breeds have a limited breeding season?
    Long wools, meat breeds
  36. Which breeds have no breeding season?
    fine wools, hair sheep
  37. Which breed hit puberty the earliest? latest?
    early - hair sheep, finnsheep, dorsets, romanov (4-5 mos)

    late - fine wools, long wools (8-10 mos)
  38. What hormone is high during anestrous?
  39. what are 3 types of anestrous?
    Seasonal, lactational, and post-partem
  40. How long is estrous?
    17 days
  41. how long is estrus?
    20 - 30 hrs
  42. What is the most common lambing program?
    1 per year
  43. Pros and cons of continuous lambing
    More lambs, more management (lambs born at different times)
  44. What is another lambing option for highly reproductive breeds?
    Every 8 mos
  45. What are hormones used for?
    • synchronize estrus
    • increase multiple births
    • induce early puberty
    • induce estrus (during anestrous)
  46. What is progesterone used for and what are two types?
    • Synchronizing estrus
    • Pessary - sponge
    • cidrs - implant with string - better because you can see it and remove it easier
  47. Why is lutalyse and prostaglandin not as effective?
    It causes corpus luteum to die, so you have to assume they actually have a CL
  48. Saanen
    • Switzerland
    • White w/ erect ears
    • produces the most milk
    • good maternal instinct
  49. Taggenburg
    • Dairy - swiss brown
    • under Saanen in productin
  50. Nubian
    • England
    • lowest milk producer
    • heat & cold tolerant
    • bigger frame
  51. Alpine
    • Switzerland
    • black & white with small erect ears
    • prod. similar to Taggenburg
  52. Oberhasli
    • dark red with black down back and belly
    • similar to alpine in production
  53. LaMancha
    • Spain
    • no economic value
  54. A tough and adaptable meat goat
    Spanish goat
  55. A heavier meat goat that is more feed efficient, but not as adaptable as the Spanish goat
  56. Goat that was imported from New Zealand to compare to Boer, but never gain popularity
  57. heavy muscle, genetic condition causing muscle tetani
  58. from Turkey, long curly hair
  59. Does not produce cashmere
  60. Three types of AI
    Vaginal, Trans-cervical, Laporoscopic (directly into lumen)
  61. How do you use a CIDR in your breeding program
    Leave in for 12-17 days, AI 50 - 60 hrs after you pull it out
  62. How long should the females be off feed/water before surgery?
    12 - 24 hrs
  63. Equipment needed for surgery
    light source, laparoscope, 2 sets of trocars
  64. How is the semen stored?
    liquid nitrogen - -346 - -320 *F
  65. Describe the AI procedure
    • remove trocars & insert laparoscope and probe
    • visualize the uterus
    • insert the AI gun
    • evacuate gas from abd cavity and remove cannulas
    • stitches aren't necessary
  66. What is the purpose of embryo transfer?
    get embryos from elite females without risking health by pregnancy
  67. What is an advantage of embryo transfer?
    Can breed out of season, no damage to elite female
  68. What is a disadvantage of embryo transfer?
    Cost - risk to donor, genetic factor with super ovulation
  69. What is the difference between sheep and goats when it comes to copper in their feed.
    • Sheep can't handle alot of copper. It becomes toxic quickly.
    • Goats need it for productivity
  70. What does callipyge mean?
    Beautiful buttocks
  71. What are the 5 grades of mohair?
    • super kid
    • kid
    • yearling
    • young adult
    • adult
  72. Discuss how water can be used to manage sheep and goats
    • In a range operation they stay closer to the water source
    • You can limit it to dry up a ewe
    • You can put medication in it
  73. What vitamin and mineral is involved in white muscle disease
    Vitamin E and Selenium
  74. Discuss the importance of the secondary : primary follicle ratio for wool and hair
    • Fine wools have a higher secondary to primary wool ratio
    • the secondary fibers are finer than the primary fibers
  75. Ultrasound pros and cons
    • It is expensive and has to be done by a vet
    • Good if you can benefit from knowing how far along the pregnancy is, and how many multiple births
  76. What is a marking harness?
    It is put on the ram, and it marks the ewe when she is mounted. It is good for determining which ewes were bred when, but it has to be managed properly
  77. How long is estrous?
    14 - 20 days
  78. How long is copulation?
    30 seconds
  79. When does puberty begin?
    5 - 12 months
  80. What breeds of lambs were born at the TTU sheep center this spring?
    hairsheep, Ramboulliets, Suffolk, Hampshire, Southdown, crossbreeds
  81. What are the two most effective ways to control internal parasites
    • Worming
    • managment - rotational pastures, no standing water, clean pastures for lambs, don't feed on ground
  82. What are the two worst internal parasites
    • Brown stomach worm
    • Coccidia
  83. How do you control lice?
  84. Name two reportable conditions
    • Psoroptic Mange
    • Scrapie
  85. Symptoms of parasites
    • loss of condition
    • rough hair coat
    • diarrhea
    • anemia
    • bottle jaw - edema
    • pale membranes
  86. Describe the life cycle of a parasite
    • Adult worm lives inside sheep and lays eggs in digestive tract
    • Egg is passed through fecal
    • Eggs hatch and larvae is ingested on vegetation
  87. How do you treat Coccidia
    Corid or Amprolium drench
  88. Methods of deworming
    • Drench
    • in feed
    • in water
    • injection
  89. Three classes of anthelmintics
    • Benzimidazoles - safeguard, panacure, valbazen -best
    • Imidazothiazoles - levisol, tramisol, rumatel
    • Macrolides - blood sucking - ivomec, cydectin
  90. Synchronization for embryo transfer
    CIDR in for 14 days, pull 8.5 days before flush
  91. Best age to flush
    2-5 yrs
  92. Embryo transfer procedure
    • Ewe is put head down on an incline
    • Count the CLs
    • Use a syringe with a flush media to flush embryos into the cathedar
  93. Where are you flushing in embryo recovery
    Uterine horn ( each seperately)
Card Set
sheep/goat exam2
sheep goat exam 2