What are the different names of pregnancy toxemia?
Ketosis, twin lamb disease
What is pregnancy toxemia?
When a pregnant lamb is malnourished and all of her energy goes to her fetus and organs
What are the symptoms of ketosis?
No energy, no appetite, quiverring, down, blindness, death
How is ketosis treated?
IV glucose or drenching
How much more milk is produced when a ewe has twins?
50% more = 150%
What does flushing mean?
To increase body weight from average by feeding more, usually 30 days prior to breeding
What is the gestation of a ewe?
How should a ewe be fed during pregnancy
- First 100 days - enough for maintenance of body weight
- Last 50 days - nutritional needs double
How much does the fetus grow during the first 100 days
1/3 of body weight
What are potential problems if the ewe is underfed during pregnancy?
- small/weak lambs
- increase death loss
- decreased growth rate
- low milk/maternal instinct
- low fleece wt
When is the normal weaning period?
What is the earliest you can wean a lamb?
What is the process for drying out a ewe?
- Day -2 no intake
- Day -1 no intake
- Day 0 wean
- Day 1 no intake
- Day 2 water only
- Day 3 water only
Why is it important to dry out the ewe?
What is the #1 cause of death in baby lambs?
starvation - poor mothers
What can cause disconnect between mother and lamb?
a twin lamb, big nipples, mastitis, new mothers
How soon after birth must the lamb nurse?
within 2-3 hours, 50% loss of blood sugar during first 30 minutes
What is important to have on hand during lambing?
Sheep colostrum, milk replacer, feeding tubes
What is the best choice for an orphan lamb?
What is the bottle feeding process?
Warm milk for first few days, switch to cold milk to keep them from over feeding, wean asap with high quality feed like soybean meal (26 days to 1 month)
When does maternal instinct shut down if no lamb?
a couple of days
How do you get a ewe to accept a lamb?
Immobilize the ewe and allow lamb to nurse
What are reasons to wean early?
- accellerated growth process
- poisonous plants
- needle grass - get in eyes and wool
- drought - ewe is struggling
- accellerated lambing programs
What is creep feeding?
when the lambs are fed and the ewes can't get to the feed - gets digestive tract functioning
What are important things to remember about creep feeding?
Feeder should be adjustable, it should be available and interesting to the lambs, put out several kinds of feed and observe what they prefer - high quality, no roughage
What are some antibiotics that are in some feeds?
- aromycin - broad spectrum
- decox - prevents coccidiosis
What prevents urinary calculi and is it necessary?
NH4Cl - No
What is the Ca:P ratio?
What is the nutritional needs for a growing lamb?
- 60 - 90 days - 16% protein 4-5 mos - 12% protein
- High energy
- Forage - Ca:P ratio important
Why is selenium important?
Sheep have a high requirement. Deficiency causes White Muscle Disease (muscle deterioration)
When does selenium defiency occur?
3 weeks after weaning
How much does the average lamb gain per day?
How do you feed replacement ewes?
rate of gain is not important. Roughage is necessary to develop rumen digestion
What are the nutritional needs for the ram?
- Need to be in perfect shape during breeding season, flush last 30 - 60 days before turning out with ewes, will lose 20 - 30 lbs
- Critical time for urinary calculi
What breeds have a limited breeding season?
Long wools, meat breeds
Which breeds have no breeding season?
fine wools, hair sheep
Which breed hit puberty the earliest? latest?
early - hair sheep, finnsheep, dorsets, romanov (4-5 mos)
late - fine wools, long wools (8-10 mos)
What hormone is high during anestrous?
what are 3 types of anestrous?
Seasonal, lactational, and post-partem
How long is estrous?
how long is estrus?
20 - 30 hrs
What is the most common lambing program?
1 per year
Pros and cons of continuous lambing
More lambs, more management (lambs born at different times)
What is another lambing option for highly reproductive breeds?
Every 8 mos
What are hormones used for?
- synchronize estrus
- increase multiple births
- induce early puberty
- induce estrus (during anestrous)
What is progesterone used for and what are two types?
- Synchronizing estrus
- Pessary - sponge
- cidrs - implant with string - better because you can see it and remove it easier
Why is lutalyse and prostaglandin not as effective?
It causes corpus luteum to die, so you have to assume they actually have a CL
- White w/ erect ears
- produces the most milk
- good maternal instinct
- Dairy - swiss brown
- under Saanen in productin
- lowest milk producer
- heat & cold tolerant
- bigger frame
- black & white with small erect ears
- prod. similar to Taggenburg
- dark red with black down back and belly
- similar to alpine in production
A tough and adaptable meat goat
A heavier meat goat that is more feed efficient, but not as adaptable as the Spanish goat
Goat that was imported from New Zealand to compare to Boer, but never gain popularity
heavy muscle, genetic condition causing muscle tetani
from Turkey, long curly hair
Does not produce cashmere
Three types of AI
Vaginal, Trans-cervical, Laporoscopic (directly into lumen)
How do you use a CIDR in your breeding program
Leave in for 12-17 days, AI 50 - 60 hrs after you pull it out
How long should the females be off feed/water before surgery?
12 - 24 hrs
Equipment needed for surgery
light source, laparoscope, 2 sets of trocars
How is the semen stored?
liquid nitrogen - -346 - -320 *F
Describe the AI procedure
- remove trocars & insert laparoscope and probe
- visualize the uterus
- insert the AI gun
- evacuate gas from abd cavity and remove cannulas
- stitches aren't necessary
What is the purpose of embryo transfer?
get embryos from elite females without risking health by pregnancy
What is an advantage of embryo transfer?
Can breed out of season, no damage to elite female
What is a disadvantage of embryo transfer?
Cost - risk to donor, genetic factor with super ovulation
What is the difference between sheep and goats when it comes to copper in their feed.
- Sheep can't handle alot of copper. It becomes toxic quickly.
- Goats need it for productivity
What does callipyge mean?
What are the 5 grades of mohair?
- super kid
- young adult
Discuss how water can be used to manage sheep and goats
- In a range operation they stay closer to the water source
- You can limit it to dry up a ewe
- You can put medication in it
What vitamin and mineral is involved in white muscle disease
Vitamin E and Selenium
Discuss the importance of the secondary : primary follicle ratio for wool and hair
- Fine wools have a higher secondary to primary wool ratio
- the secondary fibers are finer than the primary fibers
Ultrasound pros and cons
- It is expensive and has to be done by a vet
- Good if you can benefit from knowing how far along the pregnancy is, and how many multiple births
What is a marking harness?
It is put on the ram, and it marks the ewe when she is mounted. It is good for determining which ewes were bred when, but it has to be managed properly
How long is estrous?
14 - 20 days
How long is copulation?
When does puberty begin?
5 - 12 months
What breeds of lambs were born at the TTU sheep center this spring?
hairsheep, Ramboulliets, Suffolk, Hampshire, Southdown, crossbreeds
What are the two most effective ways to control internal parasites
- managment - rotational pastures, no standing water, clean pastures for lambs, don't feed on ground
What are the two worst internal parasites
- Brown stomach worm
How do you control lice?
Name two reportable conditions
Symptoms of parasites
- loss of condition
- rough hair coat
- bottle jaw - edema
- pale membranes
Describe the life cycle of a parasite
- Adult worm lives inside sheep and lays eggs in digestive tract
- Egg is passed through fecal
- Eggs hatch and larvae is ingested on vegetation
How do you treat Coccidia
Corid or Amprolium drench
Methods of deworming
- in feed
- in water
Three classes of anthelmintics
- Benzimidazoles - safeguard, panacure, valbazen -best
- Imidazothiazoles - levisol, tramisol, rumatel
- Macrolides - blood sucking - ivomec, cydectin
Synchronization for embryo transfer
CIDR in for 14 days, pull 8.5 days before flush
Best age to flush
Embryo transfer procedure
- Ewe is put head down on an incline
- Count the CLs
- Use a syringe with a flush media to flush embryos into the cathedar
Where are you flushing in embryo recovery
Uterine horn ( each seperately)