1. How does the sympathetic system affect Insulin release?
    alpha-2 decreases insulin release

    Beta-2 INCREASES insulin release
  2. Patient was in a car crash and just had a transfusion done. Suddenly he complains of SOB, pain, fever, chills, what is going on??/
    Acute hemolytic transfusion reaction.

    The preformed antibodies attack the cells, recruit complement. Type II ! C5-c9 do Cell lysis, and then C3a and C5a cause anaphylaxis
  3. Pain sensation from anterior to cecum of the tongue is carried by which nerve?
    V3 of the CN5 nerve.
  4. What is Not contained in breast milk ?
    • 1. Vitamin K==must inject into all newborns to prevent hemorrhagic necrosis
    • 2. Vitamin D: (they usually get some from sunlight though). if they are dark-skinned though, they might need more.
  5. Most of the enveloped viruses acquire their lipid phospholipids from the plasma membrane, however, these viruses acquire the membrane from the Cells nuclear membrane?
    All the Herpes family viruses
  6. PAS-positive globules in the liver?
    misfolded alpha-anti-trypsin, thus, there will be destruction of the alveolar sepatate, because No more protection from the Neutrophils releasing Elastase.
  7. Name the circular DNA molecules?
    • Hepadna = HBV
    • Papilloma= HPV
    • Polyoma= JC, BK virus
  8. this virus has a RNA-dependent DNA polymerase and it is NOT HIV?

  9. Lymph node is non-tender, and keeps waxing and waning in size....
    Follicular lymphoma
  10. Water source exposed them to this bacteria
  11. does COX-2 have any effect on platelets?
    NO, but the only advantage of using COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, is to lessen the risk of bleeding and gastric ulcers.
  12. the most helpful index for diagnosing spherocytosis, besides increased osmotic fragility test?
    Increased MCHC.
  13. Symmetric enlargement of the ventricles
    Infection/hemorrhage may have impaired the arachnoid villi--> defect in Arachnoid granulations
  14. Patients with PCOS who want to be pregnant are given...
    Clomiphene.....modulates estrogen receptor to prevent negative feedback on hypothalamus by circulating estrogens
  15. Renal Cell Carcinoma orginates from
    • Epithelial Cells of the Proximal Renal Tubules
    • (loves endothelial cells)
  16. best drug for trigeminal neuralgia?
  17. Acanthosis Nigracans
    Insulin resistance and Gastric malignancy
  18. Mifepristone
    Inhibits progesterone receptors.

    We usually administer it with Misoprostol to enhance its effects
  19. Out of glucose, mannose-6-phosphate, galactose, or fructose.....which one has the fastest metabolism in the glycolytic pathway???
    Fructose-1-P because it totally bypasses the PFK-1 rate-limiting step!
  20. Turner's syndrome is usually caused by
    Mitotic error in early development. (can be monosomy or mosaicism)
  21. What are 2 ways to get Prader Willi syndrome
    1. Abnormal Methylation of the gene that should have been active.

    2. Uniparental Disomy: 2 chromosomes from one parent, and none from the other.
  22. Can Strep. Pneumo be cultured in bile?
    NO, because it is soluble in it!!
  23. How are the members of Group D strep similar yet different?
    Enterococci (E. Faecelium, or Peptostreptococcus)== GROW in Bile AND 6.5 % Saline (NaCl).

    Non-enterococcus (strep. Bovis)== Grows in Bile, but not 6.5% NaCl
  24. Wedge shaped areas of necrosis over the cerebral convexity, lateral to the interhemispheric fissure?
    Water Shed infarcts
  25. Hemorrhagic mediastinitus. (widened mediastinum). On microscope, long chords with "medusa" heads or " serpentine" look.
  26. Patient with a history of TIA is on a drug that lowered his WBC's?
  27. Most common cause of E. COli bacteremia?
  28. If a child at age 12, starts to have dyspnea and lower body cyanosis/.....
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