Coping with Dangers - Animals

  1. What type of behaviour is shown when a snail retreats into its shell when the antenna or shell is touched?
    Aviodance behaviour
  2. Is avoidance behaviour an example of learned or unlearned behaviour?
  3. If you repeat the stimulus everytime the snail re-emerges (and this proves harmless) then eventually the snail will cease to respond and stop retreating. What is this called?
  4. Is habituation an example of learned or unlearned behaviour?
  5. Why is habituation good (in terms of energy)?
    It prevents the animal carrying out the response when unnevessary - it saves energy
  6. The habituation response is _____ - lived?
  7. In order to learn, an animal must be capable of...?
  8. Give two examples of active mechanisms of defense
    • Stinking - Skunk - Foul smell deters predator
    • Poison injection - Caterpillar bristles - Irritates predator
    • Fleeing - Antelope - Outruns predator
    • Distraction display - Avocet - Bird appears distressed and draws predator from nest
    • Feigning death - Grass snake - Plays dead until enemy leaves
  9. Give two examples of passive mechanisms of defense
    • Protective coat - Armadillo - Armour
    • Markings - Moth - Eye spots on wings startle predator
    • Camoflage - Stick Insect - Resemble leaf or twig to hide from predators
    • Mimicry - Hoverflies - Resembles poisonous prey so predators ignore them
    • Poisonous chemicals - Yellow-banded poison dart frog - Poisonous chemicals in the body combined with very bright warning colours
  10. Give two examples of social (group) mechanisms of defense
    • Schooling in fish - Herring - Safety in numbers, confuse predator
    • Herding in mammals - Safety in numbers, confuse predator
    • Specialised formation - Musk ox / Baboon - Protective group with young at centre
Card Set
Coping with Dangers - Animals
Higher Biology - Unit Two - Coping with Dangers - Animals