Microbio Final

  1. These are released from bacterial cells and may act at tissue sites removed from the site of bacterial growth
  2. Protein in nature
    Material is Extracellular, diffusible
    Denatured by boiling
    High potency
    High degree
    Enzymatic activity
    Occasional Pyrogenicity
    Characteristics of Bacterial Exotoxin
  3. A toxin that is released by bacteria into the environment.
    A toxin kept "within" the bacterial cell and to be released only after destruction of the bacterial cell wall.
    Linked with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which is a major constituent of the outer cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria.
  4. LPS in nature
    Part of outer membrane of cell
    Not denatured by boiling
    Low potency
    Low specificity
    No enzymatic activity
    Characteristics of Bacterial Endotoxins
  5. The presence or absence of this determines whether the LPS is considered rough or smooth. Bacteria with rough LPS usually have more penetrable cell membranes to hydrophobic antibiotics, since a rough LPS is more hydrophobic.
    O-specific polysaccharides / O-antigen
  6. Thick cell walls
    1 cell wall layer
    >50% Peptidoglycan content
    Present for Teichoic acids
    0-3% Lipid content
    No protein content
    No LPS
    Sensitive to Penicillin G
    Sensitive to lysozymes
    Gram-positive cell wall
  7. Thin cell walls
    2 cell wall layers
    10-20% Peptidoglycan content
    Absent for Teichoic acids
    58% Lipid content
    9% Protein content
    13% LPS
    Not sensitive to Penicillin G
    Not sensitive to lysozymes
    Gram-negative cell wall
  8. A cell-surface component of bacteria that facilitate bacterial attachment to other cells or to inanimate surfaces.
    • Adhesins
    • *Most important virulence factor for bacteria that causes pharyngitis, epiglottitis and bronchitis
  9. The ability to invade tissues, colonize, produce substances which facilitate entrance, bypass / overcome host defense.
  10. The ability to produce toxins.
  11. Caused by a virus that inflames the membranes in hte lining of the nose and throat.
    Over 200 different viruses can cause this but the rhinovirus and coronavirus causes the majority of this.
    Can lead to secondary infections - middle ear and sinus infections where antibiotics are needed
    Most likely occur during fall and winter (approx. late August-April) - more prevalent during this time because of people being indoors and close quarters.
    Children get this more than adults.
    • Common Cold - lasting days to weeks, highly contagious (spread thru air and contact (people, surfaces, self))
    • Cold viruses thrive in low humidity, making nasal passages drier and more prone to opportunity
    • Sign / Symptoms: inflaming nose and throat, watery eyes, low-grade fever, achy muscles and bones, headache, mild fatigue, chills
    • *antibiotics do not work on viruses such as the cold
  12. Painful inflammation of the pharynx.
    Common Cold and Flu most associated with this region
    • Sore Throat
    • Viral types - 90-95% of all sore throats
    • Bacterial types - 5-10% of all sore throats
    • Non-infectious types (non-contagious) - due to allergies / post-nasal drip irritating pharynx; environmental factors
    • *Swab on blood agar diagnose sore throat; determination of viral or bacterial strains cannot be tested for
  13. What types of viruses are associated with viral sore throat?
    • Flu - RNA virus
    • Adenovirus - DNA virus; causes infections of lungs and ears
    • Coxsackie virus - "Summer Sore Throat"
    • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) - Mononucleosis
  14. What types of bacteria are associated with bacterial sore throat?
    • group A Streptococcus causes β-hemolysis (complete hemolysis) in blood agar (strep. pyogenes)
    • Gonococcus / Gonorrhea
    • Complications: Glomerulonephritis, Rheumatic fever
    • *Bacterial sore throat have severe sequelae
  15. Upper Respiratory Infection
    Gram-postive bacteria
    Can lead to myocarditis (20%) and peripheral neuropathy (10%)
    • Corynebacterium diphtheria
    • *diphtheria toxin can cause skin lesions
  16. Infection of the genitals can result in a pus-like discharge from the genitals which may be foul smelling. Symptoms may include inflammation, redness, swelling, and dysuria. Can be transmitted sexually.
    Neisseria gonorrhoea
  17. A Gram-positve bacteria part of normal skin flora.
    Most common hospital-aquired infection
    Can cause most serious cases of endocarditis
    Clinically, produces skin and soft tissue infections such as Impetigo, Folliculitis, Cellulitis.
    Staphylococcus aureus
  18. A Gram-positive bacteria part of normal skin flora.
    Bacitracin Test: Sensitive
    Clinically, causes various cutaneous and systemic infections including Streptococcal pharyngitis, Scarlet fever, Rheumatic fever, fasciitis, post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis
    Streptococcus pyogenes
  19. A Gram-positive, α-hemolytic (green / incomplete / partial hemolysis)
    Optochin Test: Sensitive
    Clinically, causes localized and systemic infections such as Otitis Media, Sinusitis, Bacterial Meningitis, "Typical" Pneumonia, Endocarditis, Osteomyelitis
    Most common cause of bacterial meningitis
    Streptococcus pneumonia
  20. A Gram-positive, α-hemolytic (green / incomplete / partial hemolysis)
    Optochin Test: Resistant
    Can be found in the mouth (large amounts can infiltrate heart)
    Can adhere to cardiac valves and cause endocarditis
    Streptococcus viridans
  21. What does Sheep's / Chocolate / Brown Blood Agar help to determine?
    • Whether pathogen is an alpha or beta hemolytic
    • This is a special type of blood agar that has specific conditions to stimulate faster pathogen growth.
  22. What does the Catalase Test, test for?
    • Positive - Staphlococcus
    • Negative - Streptococcus
  23. What does the Coagulase Test, test for?
    • Positive - Staphylococcus aureus
    • Negative - other
  24. This disease has common pathogens
    Streptococcus pneumonia (60%)
    Haemophilus Influenza (Gram-negative)
    Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive)
    Viruses / Flu (RNA virus)
    Common Complaints: Chest pain, dyspnea, chills
    • "Typical" Pneumonia
    • *Chest X-ray will confirm pneumonia
  25. This disease has common pathogens
    Mycoplasma pneumonia (>60%)
    Chlamydia pneumonia
    Legionella pneumophilia
    Viruses (esp. Adenovirus - DNA virus)
    Common Complaints: Headache, Fever, Myalgia
    • "Atypical" Pneumonia
    • *Chest X-ray will confirm pneumonia
  26. Inflammation of the meninges / layers covering the brain and spinal cord
    Viral type is most common, esp. in children and young adults (resolves by itself, no serious side effects)
    Bacterial type is most severe, treat with antibiotics, may lead to long-term complications (mental retardation, deafness, brain damage, CN palsies / Bell's) or even death
    Fungal type - spores need to be inhaled to be infected, not contagious
  27. Common pathogen in Bacterial Meningitis
    Affects children and young adults due to close quarters / contact
    Complication from meningococcal septicemia may include: Meningitis, Toxic Shock, DIC, Kidney failure, gangrene, arthritis, pericaditis
    Common Complaints: Headache, Fever, Nausea / Vomiting, Photophobia
    Neisseria meningitidis
  28. An acute viral infection and inflammation of the brain itself, but can develop to a chronic infection.
    Responsible for causing cold sores / Herpes simplex, mumps, measles, chickenpox
    Young people are more susceptible to this
    5 main viruses spread by mosquitoes: West Nile, Eastern equine, Western equine, La Crosse, St. Louis
    CNS symptoms include: severe confusion, irritability, unsteady walking, drowsiness, photphobia
  29. Common symptoms of this condition include: diarrhea (viral), crampy abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting.
    "Stomach Flu" (viral)
    Norovirus (50-70%) can cause this in adults
    Rotavirus - leading cause of severe diarrhea in infants and young children
    Adenovirus cause upper jiao infections
    Escherichia coli - bacteria O157:H7, from ground beef
    Common Symptoms: low grade fever-100F, nausea with or without vomiting, mild-to-moderate diarrhea, crampy painful abdominal bloating
    More Serious Symptoms: Blood in vomit or stool, vomiting more than 48 hours, fever higher than 101F, swollen abdomen or abdominal pain, dehydration
  30. Common cause of "Traveler's" Diarrhea
    Gut may become full of fluid, resulting in significant watery diarrhea
    ETEC (Enterotoxigenic E. coli)
  31. Cause of watery diarrhea in infants
    EPEC (Enteropathogenic E. coli)
  32. Associated with outbreaks of the potentially life-threatening, acute renal failure (hemolytic uremic syndromes), bloody diarrhea (hemorrhagic colitis)
    Through ground beef and pasteurizing milk
    Exotoxin / Verotoxin
    EHEC (Enterohemorrahgic E. coli)
  33. Causes dysentery-like syndrome with fever and bloody stools
    EIEC (Enteroinvasive E. coli)
  34. E. coli is the most common cause of this
    Common Complaints: Dysuria, Lumbar pain, Fever, Chills
    • UTI (Urinary Tract Infection)
    • Uncomplicated cystitis UTI - due to E. coli
    • Complicated cystitis UTI - due to obstructed flow, simple infection
  35. Ammonia may cause injury and potentiate the effects of a cytotoxin produced by this
    H. pylori
  36. Humans have a high level innate immunity to what?
  37. "Mold Ball" from virulent mold / fungi @ home
    Infections that originate primarily in the lungs and may spread to many organ systems
    Systemic Mycoses
  38. Toxic chemical products from molds
  39. Which hepatitis virus is in the same family as polio virus?
  40. Which of the hepatitis viruses can be spread by contaminated food or water or fecal-oral route?
    • HAV
    • HEV
  41. What is the major route of transmission of HBV, HCV, HDV?
  42. Anti-H?V IgG means what?
    Had H?V in the past
  43. Anti-HBs means what?
    Immune from HBV infections
  44. Anti-HBe means what?
    • Becomes detectable as viral replication falls
    • Low infectivity in carrier
  45. HBc IgM means what?
    Recent infection
  46. HBc IgG means what?
    Indicates exposure to HBV
  47. What is the difference between Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and 2?
    • HSV1 - cold sores
    • HSV2 - genital sores
Card Set
Microbio Final
Germs, Germs, Germs