Forensic Exam

  1. 8 different blood types that a human could have.
    A+-, B+-, AB +-, O+-
  2. When the clumping together of red blood cells by the action of an antibody
  3. A person that is A- has these antibodies.
    Anti-B and anti-Rh
  4. A person that is bloodtype B- can recieve these bloodtypes in a transfusion
    B- and O-
  5. In order to determine if a person is type A, this is added to the "A" well in the blood typing tray
    Anti-A serum
  6. These are the four components of blood
    • Plamsa
    • RBC
    • WBC
    • Platelets
  7. The average human has this many liters of blood in their body
    male - 5-6 and femal - 4-5
  8. This is the percentage of blood lost from the body that would cause death
  9. How many different types of bases are associated with the makeup of DNA? What are they?
    • 4.
    • A , T, C, G,
  10. DNA is a polymer. True / False
    What is the repeating unit of DNA
    • True
    • Nucleotide
  11. The production of amino acid is coded by sequence of how many bases on the DNA molecule
  12. What portions of DNA molecule is useful for DNA typing
    A. Code for the production of proteins
    B. Non-coding DNA fragments that are repeated many time
  13. What are components of a nucleotide? In which components we can fine differences between individuals in DNA typing?
    • Phosphorous Acid containing group, sugar, nitrogenous base
    • Nitrogenous base
  14. During gel electrophoresis the DNA is separated by
    Fragment size
  15. The rate at which large DNA fragments move through the electrophoresis gel is ___ the rate at which small DNA fragments move through the same gel
    Less than
  16. What is the technique that can produce many exact copies of segments of DNA
  17. STRs normally consist of repeating sequences of ___ bases
  18. What are advantages of working with short DNA fragments
    • 1. more stable / less likely to break
    • 2. less subject to degradation
    • 3. quantity can be greatly ampified by PCR tech.
  19. The discrimination power of mitochondrail DNA is ____ the discrimination power of STR nuclear DNA analysis
    Less than
  20. RFLP DNA strands are much shorter in length than STRs. T/F
  21. What is the national system of shared DNA databases of DNA typing information from convicted criminals and crime scene evidence
  22. Give two examples of types of passive (dropping) blood stains
    • 1. drops, drips, or clots
    • 2. Drops created or formed by the force of gravitiy acting alone
  23. Two examples of types of transfer stains
    • 1. Swipe, wipe, smear, or smudge
    • 2. A blood stain created when a wet, bloody surface comes in contact with a secondary surface
  24. Two Examples of projected (impacted) blood stains.
    • 1. Gush
    • 2. A blood stain created when an exposed blood source is subjected to an action or force, greater than the force of gravity
  25. What could be the cause of medium velocity blood spatter?
    Impact from a hand or hand-held object
  26. What could be the cause of high velocity blood spatter
    a gunshot
  27. When a droplet of blood strikes a surface at an angle perpendicular to that surface, what is the shape of the blood stain?
  28. As blood stain form at more and more acute angles, what happens to the shape of the blood stains?
    they become more elongated
  29. ________the fluid portion of unclotted blood
  30. The liquid that seperates from the blood when a clot is fromed is called the _______
  31. _______ transport oxygen from the lungs to the body tissues and carry carbon dioxide back to the lung
  32. On the surface of red blood cells are chemical substances called ____, which impart blood type characteristics to the cells
  33. Type A individauls have _____ antigens on the surface of their RBC
  34. Type O individuals have _______ A and B antigens on their RBC
  35. The presence or absence of the _____ and ____ antigens on the RBC determines a person's blood type in the A-B-O system
    A, B
  36. The D antigen is also refered to a the ______ antigen
  37. Serum contains proteins known as ______ which destroy or inactivate antigens
  38. An antibody reacts with (any, only a specific) antigen
    only a specific
  39. T / F Aggulatination describes the clumpinf together of RBC by the action of an antibody
  40. Type B blood contains ____ antigens and anti____ antibodies
    B, A
  41. Type AB blood has (both / neither) anti - A / anti - B antigens
  42. The term ______ describes the study of antigen-antibody reactions
  43. Type AB blood (is / is not) agglutinated by both anti - A and anti-B serum
  44. Type B red blood cells agglunitate when added to type ____ blood
  45. Type A RBC agglutinate when added to type ___ blood
  46. An immunolical assay technique used to detect the presence of minute quantities of drugs in blood and urine is _____
  47. ______ reagent reacts wtih blood, causing it to luminesce
  48. Blood can be characterized as being of human origin by the ________ test
  49. The basic unit of heredity is the _____
  50. Genes are positioned on threadlike bodies called ______
  51. All nucleated cells in the human body, except the repriductive cells, have ___ pairs of chromosomes
  52. The sex of an offspring is always determinded by the ______
  53. Genes that influence a given characteritics and are aligned with one another on a chromosomes pair are known as _______
  54. A ________ is an observable characteristic of an individual
  55. The combination of genes present in the cells of an individual is called the _______
  56. A gene (will /will not) appear in a child whien it is present in one of the parents
  57. A type B individual may have the genotype ____ or the genotype ___
    BO, BB
  58. A type AB mother and type AB father will have offspring of what possible genotypes? __________
    AA, BB, AB
  59. A type AB mother and type AB father will have offspring of what possible phenotypes? ________
    A, B, AB,
  60. A(n) ________ is a very large molecule made by linking a series of repeating units
  61. A(n) ________ is complsed of sugar molecule, a phosphorus -containing group, and a nitrogen-containing molecule called a base
  62. ___ different bases are associated with the makeup of DNA
  63. Watson and Crick demonstrated that DNA is composed of 2 strands coiled into the shape of a _________ ________
    double helix
  64. The structure of DNA requires the pairing of base A to ___ and the base G to ___
  65. The base sequence T-G-C-A can be paired with the the base sequence _-_-_-_ in a double-helix configuration
  66. The interitble traits that are controlled by DNA arise out of DNA's ability to direct the production of ________
  67. _______ are derived from a combination of up to 20 known amino acids
  68. The production of an amino acid is controlled by a sequence of ___ bases on the DNA molecule
  69. T/F Enzymes known as DNA polymerase assemble new DNA strands into a proper base sequence during replication
  70. In STR DNA a typical DNA pattern shows ( 2,3) bands
  71. Short DNA segments containing repeating sequences of 3 to 7 bases are called
  72. The short lengths of STRs allows them to be replicated by
  73. Mitochondrial DNA is inherted by the
  74. The national DNA database in the US has standardized on __ STRs for entry into the database
  75. 13
  76. ____________________ is the method used to support a likely sequence of events at a crime scene by the observation and evaluation of physical evidence and statements made by indivduals involved with the incident
    Crime-Scene Reconstruction
  77. Reconstructing the crime scene is a team effort that include the help of ______________, ____________, and _________________.
    • Law enforcement personals
    • Medical examiners
    • Criminalist
  78. Violent contact between individuals at a C.S. frequently produces bleeding and results in the formationof ___________
    bloodstain patterns
  79. The proper interpretation of bloodstain patterns necessitates carefully planned _____________ using surface materials comparable to those found at the crime scene
    Controled experiment
  80. Bloodstain patterns may convey the analyst the location and movement of ___ or ____ during the commission of a crime
    Victims , suspects
  81. Generally, bloodstain diameter (increases, decreases) with height
  82. The ______________________ and the _______________ of blood striking an object may be discerned by the stain's shape
    direction of travel , angle of impact
  83. The angle of impact of an ind bloodstain can be stimated using the ratio of _________ divided by _______ of the bloodstain
    width, length
  84. _______________ most common type of blood spatter
    impact spatter
  85. The point on a 2D plnae from which the drops originated
    area of convergence
  86. A bloodstain pattern in a 3D space illustrates the posistion of the victim or suspect when the stain-producing event took place
    area of orgin
  87. The ____method is used at the crime to determine the area of orgin
  88. Pattern created by contact between a bloody object and a surface
  89. pattern commonly originated from repreated strikes, arc pattern
    cast off
Card Set
Forensic Exam