What is Alu element?
- Alu is an example of a so-called "jumping gene" – a transposable DNA sequence that "reproduces" by copying itself and inserting into new chromosome
There are over one million Alu sequences interspersed throughout the human genome.
- Alu elements do not encode for protein products. There are variations in the Alu sequence and they can be grouped and family or
of Alu element
- All Alus are
- approximately 300 bp
it called Alu element?
- it has a restriction site for AluI restriction enzyme
of genotype frequency
- Genotype frequency = (# students with genotype X) / (total # students) Size of two Alu element allele
- can be same or different
of parent’s Alu element allele
- If you have one PCR
- product then they are from your parent and same size repeat. If they are two
- different size then your one is from your mom and other is from your dad.
you followed for Alu element analysis
- 2. PCR set up and
3. DNA gel electrophoresis
STR stands for?
short tandem repeat
STR used in US for forensic analysis
- In the United States, 13 core STR loci have been
- decided upon to be the basis by which an individual genetic profile can be
you followed for STR analysis
1. Buccal DNA extraction
2. PCR set-up and amplification
- 3. Capillary gel electrophoresis and
- DNA gel electrophoresis
of allele frequency (%)
- Allele frequency (%) = 2(# students homozygous for allele) + 2(# students
- heterozygous for allele) / 2(# students)
Homozygous/ Heterozygous STR allele
- Whem both
- chromosome have same size STR loci : Homogyzous
- When the
- chromosomes have two different size STR loci: Heterozygous
of blood cells
- Red blood cells or erythrocytes are relatively large
- microscopic cells without nuclei. They are the most abundant cells in our
- blood; produced in the bone marrow and contain a protein called hemoglobin that
- carries oxygen to our cells.
- White blood cells or
- leucocytes are
- relatively smaller in number. They are part of the immune system and destroy
- infectious agents called pathogens. These cells have nuclei.
- or thrombocyte is
- the clotting factors that are carried in the plasma; they clot together in a
- process called coagulation to seal a wound and prevent a loss of blood. These
- cells are without nuclei.
of antigens present on RBC
A and B
of blood groups/types depending on antigens
Type A, B, O and AB
- blood cells or erythrocytes are relatively large microscopic cells without nuclei. They are
- the most abundant cells in our blood; produced in the bone marrow and contain a
- protein called hemoglobin that carries oxygen to our cells.
B: what type of antigen and antibody? A antigen and anti B antibody
Donor and recipient groups
- with TYPE O blood are called Universal Donors, because they can
- give blood to any blood type.
- with TYPE AB blood are called Universal Recipients, because they
- can receive any blood type.
Rh + à Can receive + or -
Rh - à Can only receive -
- Another way to type
- blood with Rh antigen present on RBC
of A+ or A-
- The A stands for the blood type
- the + or -, refers to the presence or lack of RH