1. what is the pathway of the cardiac conduction system
    SA--internodal pathways--av node--bundle of his-- L & R bundle branches--perkinge fibers
  2. where is the placement of lead II
    what is the R hand
    • right hand is bad
    • negative
  3. where is the placement of lead II
    • neg mid clavicular 2nd ics
    • pos mid clavicular 5th ics
  4. how many secs is a small box
    .04 secs
  5. how many secs is a big box
  6. how many secs is a strip
    6 secs
  7. what does the p wave represent
    atrial depolarization
  8. what is a normal pri
  9. how do you measure a p wave
    beginning of the p to the beginning of the qrs
  10. what is the normal duration of the qrs complex
    what does it represent
    how do you measure it
    • ventricular depolarization
    • <.12
    • beginning of q to the end of the s
  11. what does st segment elevation represent
    • mi
    • preinfarction
    • pericarditis
  12. what does st segment depression mean
  13. how do you measure st segment and what does it represent?
    ventricular repolarization
  14. how do you count atrial rate
  15. how do you count ventricular rate
  16. if the p wave comes early what is this called
  17. if the p wave comes late what is this?
  18. if the p wave gets progressively longer what is the dysthrhytmia
    1st degree av block
  19. what are the 4 common causes of artifact
    • pt movement
    • loose or defective electrodes
    • improper grounding
    • faulty ecg apparatus
  20. if the qrs is wide and bizarre and early what dysrhythmia is is
  21. define sinus brady the etiology and s/s
    • hr<60
    • iicp,vagal stimulation,drugs, sleep, conditioned athlete
    • asymptomatic, or decreased pulse, hypotension, dizziness, cest pain or ms changes
  22. define sinus tach the etiology and s/s
    • rate greater than 100
    • exersize, pain, fever,shock, agitation, drugs, dehydration cafeine, nicotine, bblocker withdrawl
    • palpitations, dyspnea asymptomatic
  23. define sinus arrythmia the etiology and s/s
    • abnormal rathe and rhythm
    • common in children and young adults, increase in hr with inspiration, decrease with expiration, usually considered benign
    • usually asymptomatic or irregular pulse
  24. define pac
    • regular sinus is interrupted by early abnormally shaped p wave
    • p wave may be notched, peaked, diphasic or lost in st
    • pri changes
    • qrsi less than .12
  25. what is the etiology of pac and s/s
    • atrial stretch (in valve disease, chf, liver disease, pulmonary htxn) mitral valve prolapse, emotional upheaval, nicotine caffeine, dig
    • irregular pulse, pt usually unaware of pacs
  26. define psvt
    • abrupt onset and termination
    • hr 100-300 bpm
    • p wave hidden in the t wave
    • narrow qrs
  27. what is the eteiology and s/s of psvt
    • etiology same as pac's
    • rapid regular pulse, s/s of decreased co, chf or mi this is because the rapid rate does not give heart enough time to fill and decreases oxygen supply
  28. what are the 2 types of cardiac cells and what do they do
    • myocardial - contraction
    • specialized - conduction
  29. define conductivity
    ability to transmit impulse
  30. define excitability
    capability of cell to respond to stimulus
  31. define automaticity
    ability to initiate impulse
  32. rhythmicity
  33. refractoriness
    ability to be unresponsive
  34. what are the refractory periods and what do they mean
    • absolute - no response to stimulus
    • relative - response to strong stimulus when stimulus occurs this is when r on t phenomenon occurs
    • nonrefractory - ready for stimulus
  35. what is the rate of the sa node
    regular 60-100
  36. what is the rate of the av node
  37. what is the rate of the purkinje fibers
  38. why and how positive and negative deflection
    positive happens when it goes toward a positive lead (going to wisconsin to visit)

    negative happens when it is going toward a negative lead (going back home)
Card Set
ecg exam III