Bio 224

  1. What is vasoconstriction and vasodilation?
    • Vasoconstriction is when the arteries constrict which concludes a decrease in peripheral blood flow, an increase in central blood presure, and decrease in pulse amplitude. Example is ice.
    • Vasodilation is when the arteries open which allows blood flow into the muscles which concludes an increase in peripheral blood flow, increase in pulse amplitude and a decrease in central blood presure. An example of this is sweating during exercise.
  2. How does the % skinfold effect the amplitude change?
    The higher the skinfold, the less the amplitude will change because there is more insulation. The more subcutaneous apidose tissue an individual has, the more likely they can keep a homeostasis environment then someone who has a lower % skinfold.
  3. How do you calculate pre-cool amplitude?
    Pre-Cool Amplitude= Average cool amplitude/ average pre-cool amplitude x100
  4. What does thermoreceptors do?
    Thermoreceptors detect temperature such as heat or cold. It then sends signals to the hypothalamus which then causes a alteration in blood flow (vasoconstriction/vasodilation)
  5. What are mechanoreceptors?
    Mechanoreceptors detect pressure, touch, sound, and strectch.
  6. What are proprioceptors?
    Proprioceptors are the internal stimulus such as muscle contraction and positioning of the leg.
  7. What happens when a mechanical force is applied?
    When a movement (mechanical force) stimulates mechanoreceptor an A.P is triggered in the mechanoreceptor neuron which travels to higher ganglion (mass nerve cells) for processing.
  8. What do stretch receptors do?
    They synapse with interneurons in the CNS and form part of a complex neural reflex pathway.
  9. How do you calculate Firing Rate?
    • Firing rate= Action Potentials/ Seconds
    • (It is interpreted in the CNS)
  10. Define Sensory Receptor Adaptation.
    When a stimulus is applied for a long period of time, the receptor slows down the stimulus change. Reduction in neural response.
  11. How does acute and chronic stimulation have on firing rate?
    • Acute 30 degrees and acute 60 degrees has a higher firing rate because there is no rest in between. This is flexion.
    • Chronic 30 degrees and chronic 60 degrees shows sensory neuron adaptation because there is no rest period in between. This is extension.
  12. What is phasic, tonic, and phasictonic?
    • Phasic is a sensory neuron that rapidly adapts to a stimulus. There is a decrease in firing rate of the sensory receptor.
    • Tonic is a sensory neuron that slowly adapts to a stimulus. The action potential is as long as the stimulus then slowly decreases over time.
    • Phasictonic is bursts of action potentials then quickly settle into a tonic pattern.
  13. What is integration?
    Integration is the generation of motor output based on the sum of sensory inputs. It is done by reflex arcs.
  14. What are reflex arcs?
    Reflex arcs do not involve interneurons. They involve sensory and motor neurons. This means the brain does not process the stimulus but the body just reacts to it because the information is sent to the spinal cord. It is an easy to way to learn about the stimulus repsonse relationship. An example is patellar tendon reflex.
  15. What are 3 ways in which the sensory system stimulation affects reaction time?
    • 1) Differences in afferent conduction times b/w sesnroy systems
    • 2)Sensory systems can change instantly
    • 3)Sensory systems are more sensitive.
  16. What is visual motor learning?
    Visual motor learning is when you increase coordination, speed and accuracy of tasks involving hand-eye cordination. It is a way to modify behaviours in response to new changing visual environments to improve our performance on tasks we do repeatedly.
  17. What is index of refraction?
    Index of refraction is the amount of light that is bent based on materials it passes
  18. Did the student repsond faster to the visual or auditory response?
    The students responded to the auditory response faster because the sensory receptor is less complex than the visual receptor.
  19. What is a neurotransmitter and special synapse?
    A neurotransmitter is a neuron that transmits signals. There is a release of acetylcholine, due to a parasympathetic response, which causes an A.P (released by motor neurons) which stimulates a contraction of muscle cells (neuromuscular junction- synpase)
Card Set
Bio 224
Bio 224