Delinquency in Society

  1. 30- day prevalence
    In self-report surveys, the use of drugs at least once during the previous month.
  2. Achieved Status
    A status that is earned
  3. Adjudication Hearing
    A hearing held to determine whether the child committed the offense of which he or she is accused.
  4. adolescence-limited offenders
    Juveniles whose lawbreaking behavior is restricted to their teenage years.
  5. age-crime curve
    Crime rates increase during preadolescence, peak in middle adolescence, and steadily decline thereafter.
  6. aging-out phenomenon
    The gradual decline of participation in crime after the teenage years.
  7. annual prevalence
    In self-report surveys, the use of a drug at least once during the prior year.
  8. ascribed status
    A status that is received at birth.
  9. assortative mating
    The concept that people choose mates that are similar to themselves.
  10. atavistic beings
    Criminals are a throwback to a more primitive stage of development.
  11. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
    The most common neurobehavioral child-hood disorder.
  12. authoritarian parents
    Parents who place a high value on obedience and conformity, tending to favor more punitive, absolute, and forceful disciplinary measures.
  13. authoritative parents
    Parents who are warm but firm; they set standards of behavior for their child and highly value the development of autonomy and self-direction.
  14. baby boomers
    People born between 1946 and 1964.
  15. bail
    A money or cash bond deposited with the court or bailbondsman allowing the person to be released on the assurance he or she will appear in court at the proper time.
  16. Baker v. Owen
    Teachers can administer reasonable corporal punishment for disciplinary purposes.
  17. behavioral theory
    A theory that blames behavior on a person's interactions with others throughout her or his lifetime.
  18. Bethel School District No. 403 v. Fraser
    Schools may prohibit vulgar and offensive language.
  19. blended sentencing
    Juvenile courts may impose adult criminal sanctions on particular types of juvenile offenders.
  20. Board of Education of Pottawatomie County v. Earls
    Schools may require students to submit to a urinalysis for illegal drugs prior to participating in all competitive extracurricular activities.
  21. bond
    The glue that connects a child to society.
  22. booking
    The official recording of a person into detention after arrest.
  23. boot camps
    Short-term confinement facilities where youths are exposed to a militaristic environment in which the emphasis is on physical conditioning, work, and education.
  24. Brady Bill
    Federal legislation mandating a five-day waiting period for the purchase of handguns.
  25. Breed v. Jones
    Criminal prosecution of a child following a juvenile court hearing is unconstitutional because it constitutes double jeopardy.
  26. bullying
    Negative acts by students carried out against other students repeatedly over time.
  27. Child Savers
    Nineteenth century reformers who believed children were basically good and blamed delinquency on a bad environment.
  28. Chimel v. California
    Established the one-arm's-length rule: Once a suspect is arrested, police may search the suspect and the immediate area he or she occupies.
  29. chivalry hypothesis
    The belief that lower rates of delinquency among females reflect men's deference and protective attitude toward women whereby female offenses are generally overlooked or excused by males.
  30. chronic offenders
    Juveniles who continue to engage in law-breaking behavior as adults.
  31. chronic status offender
    Children who continued to commit status offenses despite repeated interventions by family, school, social service, or law enforcement agencies.
  32. Classical School Delinquency
    is blamed on the choices people make.
  33. coercive exchange
    A test of wills in which a child uses misbehavior to extort a desired outcome from her or his parents.
  34. collective efficacy
    The mutual trust among neighbors combined with willingness to intervene on behalf of the common good, specifically to supervise children and maintain public order.
  35. community policing
    Based on the concept that police officers and private citizens working together can help solve community problems related to crime, fear of crime, social and physical disorder, and neighborhood decay.
  36. compulsory school attendance law
    A legislative act that requires students to attend school between specific ages, for example, 6-16 years old.
  37. conduct norms
    Rules that reflect the values, expectations, and actual behaviors of groups in everyday life. They are not necessarily the norms found in the criminal law.
  38. conflict theory
    Society is held together by force, coercion, and intimidation and that the law represents the interests of those in power.
  39. continuity of crime
    The idea that chronic offenders are unlikely to age-out of crime and more likely to continue their law-violating behavior into their adult lives.
  40. corporal punishment
    The infliction of physical pain as a penalty for violating a school rule.
  41. Crime Index
    A statistical indicator consisting of eight offenses used to gauge the amount of crime reported to the police. It was discontinued in 2004.
  42. crime norms
    Criminal laws that prohibit specific conduct and provide punishments for violations.
  43. crimes of interest
    The crimes that are the focus of the National Crime Victimization Survey.
  44. cultural transmission
    The process by which criminal values are transmitted from one generation to the next.
  45. cumulative disadvantage
    The process by which successive misbehavior leads to a serious attenuation of an individual's life chances
Card Set
Delinquency in Society