N/B Genetics

  1. What are IEGs?
    • Immediate Early Genes are genes that code for transcription factors that affect the expression of other genes.
    • Some of these genes appear to be related to changes in synaptic strength and possibly memory.
    • The low expression of these genes during sleep may be associated with thte fact that learning and memory formation are largely absent in this state.
  2. Give examples of IEGs and what do they do?
    c-fos for
  3. How can IEGs be induced and how fast?
    By the introduction of light, the ChR2 channel (light gated cation channel) opens. It is a powerful tool for the optical induction of action potentials in neurons. C-fos triggers an action potential in pyramidal neurons in the precense of light.
  4. What is catFISH and how is it used?
  5. What is the role of Npas4?
  6. How can Npas4 be induced?
  7. By which stimuli is Npas generated?
  8. What does Npas4 regulate?
  9. In which area of the brain was Npas4 studied?
  10. What dieases can be modeled by context vs cued fear conditioning?
  11. What is the main behavioral symptom in autism?
  12. Which symptoms of schizophrenia can be modeled in mice? Which symptoms are difficult or cannot be anaylzed?
  13. What is the Dopamine hypotesis of schizophrenia?
  14. Which gene is affected in Rett syndrome?
  15. What cellular processes are affected by the gene that is affected in Rett syndrome?
  16. What are two major neuropathologies in the brain associated with AD?
  17. What is the main behavioral symptom in AD?
  18. What is the age for early onset AD? for late?
  19. What kind of neurons are mostly affected in patients with AD?
  20. What is the amyloid cscade hypothesis?
  21. What percent of AD results from autosomal dominnant inheritance?
    about 1%
  22. What is the function of presenillin?
  23. What apollpoprotien E (apoE) gene polymorphisms are a risk factor?
  24. What type of gene is Cox-2 in terms of its activity-dependent induction?
  25. What promotor was used in the Andreasson et al. paper? Why was it used?
  26. From was species was Cox-2 used in the Andreasson et al. study? What is the age of the mice used? Why?
    • The study introduced human genes into the mice.
    • So that any results found can be 'applied' to humans as well.
    • One long-term goal of this type of work is to one day devise pharmaceuticals to prevent problems (in this case AD). These must work in humans so it is best to test all biochemical/molecular models with the human protein.
    • Using the human protein you can easily tell where it is being (over)expressed because of that one antibody they had that would bind only the human protein.
  27. What control measurments can be used in the Morris water maze study? What for?
  28. Optogenetics
Card Set
N/B Genetics
Exam 3