hist pers

  1. critical period

    a period in the life span of an individual (in birds a short perid just after hatching) where learning or imprinting is greatly facilitated.
  2. imprinting

    form of learning in which individuals exposed to certain key stimuli, usually during an early stage of development, form an association with the object and may later show sexual behavior toward similar objects
  3. sign stimulus

    the component of an action or object that triggers a fixed response in an animal. For example, a herring gull chick's begging response
  4. ego defense mechanisms

    • unconscious psychological strategies brought into play by various entities to cope with reality and maintain self image
    • displacement




    reaction formation


  5. Freud's Contributions
    psychological basis for mental disorders

    comprehensive theory of personality

    development of psychotherapy

    role of the unconscious mind

    concepts of ego, id and superego

    theory of personality dynamics

    psychosexual theory of development

    ego defense mechanisms
  6. fixations

    getting stuck in one stage of development. for example, getting stuck in the anal stage, and never letting things go.
  7. parapraxias

    expression of the unconscious in everyday life caused by psychological tension.

    slips of the tongue


    interpretation of jokes and humor
  8. wish fullfillment

    an outlet of the libido, it is a compromise between desire and self-censorship
  9. reaction formation

    doing the opposite of what you are inwardly compelled to do because it is too anxiety provoking. For example a homosexual becoming a homophobe
  10. rationalization

    giving a logical explanation but it is not the right explanation, hiding the right reason. For example, the dog ate my homeowrk
  11. projection

    tendency to attribute some internal conflict onto something else
  12. displacement

    take a goal that is anxiety provoking and replace it with something that is not as provoking
  13. anthropomorphism
    the tendency to attribute human characteristics to animals that aren't justified. For example, thinking a dog wants to go on a walk, you don't know that he wants to. also Clever Hans math talents
  14. just noticable difference

    the unit of measure of the differential threshold
  15. phenotype

    interaction of genotype and the enviornment (the finished product)
  16. Broca's area
    frontal lobe of the left hemisphere

    hemispheric lateralization of function

    language center
  17. aphasia

    loss of the ability to speak
  18. Differential threshold

    the minimum change or difference between two stimuli that can be reliably detected
  19. Webers Law

    the just noticable difference for detecting a change in intensity is proportional to the intensity of the standard stimulus.
  20. Wernicke
    described a different pattern of language breakdown with injury to the temporal lobe of the left hemisphere, which he described as sensory aphasis
  21. Darwin's Contributions
    • -emphais on variation and individual differences
    • -focus on the adaptive value of behavior and mental processes (functionalism)
    • -spawned the new fields of ethology and comparative psychology
    • -blind trial and error
  22. absolute threshold

    minimum amount of physical stimulus that reliably evokes a sensation
  23. equipotentiality

    the capacity of an intact part of the brain to take over the memory functions of a damaged portion
  24. genotype

    variation of hereditary origin
  25. Thorndikes law of effect
    when several responses are made to the same situation, those which are accompanied with rewards are more likely to be repeated, while those accompanied by punishment are more likely to be avoided
  26. spontaneous recovery

    after some time, the response may reappear after extinction, and the conditioned stimulus will again elicit the conditioned response.
  27. extinction

    if the conditioned stimulus is paired repeatedly without the unconditioned stimulus, the conditioned response will eventually dissapear
  28. discrimination

    at first, animals respond indisciminatly to a range of stimuli. By selective reinforcement, pavlov trained his animals to make a conditioned response to the reinforced stimulus, but not to other stimuli
  29. generalization

    conditioned responses often occur to stimuli that are similar to (but not identical to) the original conditioned stimulus
  30. classical conditioning

    a neutral stimulus leads to a response as a result of being paired with another stimulus that already produces the response
  31. ethology

    an evolutionary approach to the study of animal behavior

    naturalistic observation

    feild experiments

    role of natural selection and adaptation
  32. cognitive map

    a type of mental processing composed of a series of psychological transformations by which an individual can aquire, code, store, recall and decode information about the relative location and attributes of phenomena in their everyday enviornment.

    awareness of all possible outcomes
  33. hysteria

    a neurosis characterized by hypnotic suggestibility, also a weakness of the CNS
  34. Charcot
    hypnotic suggestablility is a symptom of a mental disorder- a neurosis called hysteria
  35. trichromatic theory of color vision

    human color vision involces three colors, red, blue and green. The color receptors are the cones in the retina. An elaboration of Mullers law of specific nerve energies, suggesting that individual nerves transmit sensory images not only of a specific kind but also of a specific quality.
  36. fechner
    theory and methods of psychophysics

    double aspect monism

    mapping the functional relationship between physical and mental worlds

    quantitative measurement of mental processes

    complementary colors

    webers law
  37. fritsh and hitzig
    showed that electrical stimulation of regions of the cortex in dogs produced specific responses of individual muscle groups (motor strip)
  38. phrenology

    surface of the skull mirrors the exaggeration of functional areas in the cortex. Bumps on the skull are associated with faculties that are prominent in individuals
  39. Industrial melanism
    dark forms of the peppered moths were more prevalent in cities during the industrial revolution. More effective camoflauge for the dark moths provided by soot covered tree limbs and buildings
  40. Malthus
    human populations can grow exponentially, they outgrow their means of subsistence. Population increases must be kept in check by war, famine or disease. Although there is the potential for growth, actual population growth is fairly constant
  41. Lamarck
    theory of evolution by acquired characteristics. ex. a giraffs neck. The all important role of enviornment
  42. modes of reasoning

    induction- combines facts to arrive at theoretical conclusions

    deducation- uses theory to generate testable predictions

    abduction- the process of hypothesis generation, viewed this as the creative aspect of science
  43. Icon/Index/Symbol

    icon-resembles its referent ex falling rocks sign

    index- linked by association ex lightning and thunder

    symbol- arbitrary link ex most words
  44. free association

    his standard measure of treatment. He believed it led reliably to pathogenic ideas and attuned him to several subtle but important phenomena that had been masked by his previous reliance on hypnosis
  45. psychoanalysis
    freuds new field that used the cathartic method on his patients
  46. catharsis

    a patient would be hypnotized and then would be asked to try to recall the first time they had experienced a physical sensation like one of her symptoms. Upon remembering she would be able to vent this previously suppressed emotion. Following this "catharsis" the symptom would disappear.
  47. dream work

    every dream originates with a series of latent thoughts or ideas, which the sleeping mind transforms into manifest content by three processes referred to collectively as dream work. Displacement, condensation and concrete representation
  48. latent learning

    is a form of learning that is not immediately expressed in an overt response, it occurs without obvious reinforcement to be applied later.
  49. morgans canon
    a way to avoid anthropomorphism. We should never ascribe human characteristics if you can explain it in simpler terms
  50. manifest/latent content

    manifest content: doesn't make sense to the dreamer

    latent: seemed to have the greatest personal signigicance for the dreamer. Patients often resisted uncovering this latent content.
  51. transference

    patients tended to transfer onto him, as their therapist, motives and attributes of the important people from their past lives that were implicated in their neurotic symptoms
  52. posthypnotic suggestion

    subjects in a trance were told they will perform a certain act after awakening but will forget that they have been instructed to do so, like scratch their ears when the hypnotist coughs.
  53. psychophysics

    the scientific study of the relationship between stimulus and sensation
  54. operant conditioning
    thorndike then skinner

    the use of consequences to modify the occurance and form of a behavior
  55. unconscious motivation

    most human behavior is the result of desires, impulses, and memories that have been repressed into an unconscious state yet they still influence actions
  56. adaptive radiation
    • Darwin
    • genetic changes that take place in a popultaion. Resulting in speciation such as the finches on the Galapagos islands
  57. skinner box
    bf skinner

    operant conditioning chamber used in experimental analysis to study animal behavior
  58. intervening variables

    a hypothetical internal state that is used to explain relationships between observed variables, such as independent variables and dependent variables in empirical research
  59. complementary colors

    pairs of colors that are of opposite hue in a color model. In color theory, two colors are called complementary if when mixed in the proper proportion, they produce a neutral color
  60. contingencies of reinforcement

    the removal of an aversive stimulus results in the desired behavior
  61. reinforcement schedules

    continuous- the desired behavior is reinforced every single time it occurs. Best used in initial stages of learning

    partial- the response is reinforced only part of the time. Learned behaviors are acquired more slowly, but the response is more resistant to extinction

    • -fixed ratio
    • -variable ratio
    • -fixed interval
    • -variable interval
  62. object permanance

    the understanding that objects continue to exist even when they cannot be seen, heard or touched. Infants develop this through touching and handling objects
  63. regression to the mean

    the phenomena that a variable that is extreme on its first measurement will tend to be closer to the center of the distribution on a later measurement.
  64. law of specific nerve energies

    the nature of perceptions is defined by the pathway over which the sensory information is carried. Ex. pressing on the eye and producing flashes of light
  65. honeybee waggle dance
    von Frisch

    a figure 8 dance of the honeybee, used to share information with their hive mates about direction and distance to flowers, water or new housing locations
  66. sensory/motor nerves
    sensory nerves recieve sensory stimuli such as how something feels and if it is painful

    motor nerves- neurons located in the CNS and directly or indirectly control muscles
  67. operational definition
    identifies one or more specific observable conditions or events and then tells the researcher how to measure that event.
  68. Watson

    instinct as a set of reflexes activated by heredity

    focus on biological and psychological similarities among animal species

    conditioned responses

    conditioned fear: little Albert
  69. Skinner
    operant conditioning

    reinforcement learning

    skinner box


    radical enviornmentalist
  70. Tolman
    latent learning

    cognitive map

    cognitive movement
  71. Mesmer
    placebo effect

    gravity and magnetism

    animal magnetism


    the "magnetic Baquet"
  72. Debate in the history of neuroscience concerning the localization of function.
    Descartes: the mind could not be localized in the brain because its structures were paired, how could consciousness occupy 2 places at once?

    Florens-ablation studies on birds-launched debate

    wernike and broca-lateralization of function
  73. Donders
    simple reaction time to visual stimulus

    subtractive method

    choice reaction time
  74. weber
    absolute threshold

    differential threshold


    two-point threshold
  75. peirce
    pragmatism: philisophical theory of truth and meaning

    theory of signs

    modes of reasoning in science
  76. key properties of consciousness according to James
    the purpose of consciousness is to help people adapt to their enviornments

    consciousness is:


    continious and indivisible

    constantly changing


  77. James
    instinct and habit

    james/lange theory of emotion

    personal identity and the self

    ideo-motor theory of behavior
  78. James/Lange theory of emotion
    we see a bear; this triggers a physiological response, which leads us to experience fear. Emotion is caused by bodily events, not the other way around.

    an emotion is actually the consequence rather than the cause of the bodily changes associated with its expression. He developed this to overcome depression during his youthful crisis.
  79. Sechenov
    the mind as an epiphenomenon

    relexes in the brain

    inhibition and excitation
  80. Pavlov
    • Developed classical conditioning
    • conditioned reflex
    • two part theory of language
  81. contrast skinners approach to language with that of chomsky.
    chomsky: believed language is based on a system of rules and is a biological, species-specific trait.

    chomsky's criticism of skinner: limits only to obervables, in something as complex as language you would expect internal functions to be important.

    skinner: book-verbal behavior: some occurance triggers a response, only observableevents. All you need is an analysis of behavior.
  82. Wundt
    established world first lab for experimental psychology


    dual approach: introspection and experiment


    tridemensional theory of feeling

    creative synthesis
  83. Galton
    sensory acuity, head size, reaction time

    nature vs nurture

    biological determinism
  84. Binet
    criticized galtons view of inherited intelligence

    emphasized individual differences in intelligence, attention,motivation and background

    mental age vs chronological age

    binet-simon tests of intelligence
  85. intelligence quotient

    proposed as a method to measure childrens intelligence
  86. Tinbergen
    Sign stimulus

    releaser ex a yawn
  87. Piaget
    stage theory of development

    an active contruction of knowledge

    genetic epistomologist

    intellectual development not gradual, but abrupt
  88. Stage theory of development
    sensory motor stage: 0-2, basic sensory and motor activities, object permanance to move on

    preoperational stage: 2-7, not yet able to master math operations, conservation of quantituy (glasses) to move on

    concrete operations stage: 7-11, less egocentric, mastery of abstract problems to move on

    formal operations stage: 12-adult, able to master abstract and symbolic reasoning, metacognition, hypotherico-deductive reasoning
  89. levels of linguistics

    phonetics- articulation and perception of speech sounds

    phonology: patterning of sounds in a language

    morphology: principles of word formation

    syntax: arrangement of morphemes in sentences

    semantics: study of meaning

    pragmatics: language use in social context
  90. chomsky
    language as a system of rules

    cartesian linguistics

    nativism: language as a biological, species-specific trait

    universal grammer

    surface and deep structure
  91. components of natural selection. what was it developed for? how does it differ from artificial selection?
    • -variability in traits
    • -inherited
    • -selection of desired characteristics
    • -modification of structure or behavior over generations

    unlike artificial selection, natural selection is not guided or purposeful, but instead is a "self generated outcome of interactions between organisms and their enviornment"
  92. how did galton propose to measure human intelligence? what was wrong with this proposal?
    he believed the power of the brain was related to head size and the speed that they can respond to things. It was wrong because intelligence involves higher mental processes such as thinking, reasoning and logic.
  93. describe the formation of a conditioned response according to the classical conditioning theory developed by pavolv. Include an example, and describe the roles of the unconditioned stimulus, unconditioned response, conditioned stimulus and conditioned response
    • -dogs have an innate tendency to salivate at the sight of food. Food is the unconditioned stimulus, salivation the unconditioned response
    • -next, the unconditioned stimulus (food) is presented with a conditioned stimulus that does not elicit the response ex.c the sound of a metronome
    • -after repeated pairing of the conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus, the conditioned stimuluswill begin to elicit the same response (unconditioned response), now called the conditioned response
  94. compare and contrast the approaches taken by the behaviorists and the ethologists to the study of animal behavior. explain the rationale for each approach with an example
  95. Pavlonian conditioning/operant learning
    operant learning-the use of consequences to modify the occurance and form of a behavior

    pavlonian conditioning-a neutral stimuls leads to a response as a result of being paired with another stimuls that already produces the response
  96. excitation/inhibition

    excitation-an increase in neural activity following stimulation

    inhibition-a process by which a neural activation is reduced following stimulation
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hist pers
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