1. True or false? Nonspecific mechanisms of defense fight or prevent all types of infection, while specific defenses utilize different mechanisms for different types of infection.
  2. Physical and chemical barriers would be the ______ line of defense
  3. Skin, mucous membranes, and saliva are examples of ________ defenses
  4. What is our primary physical barrier against disease?
  5. defensive cells & proteins, fever, and inflammation are the ______ line of defense
  6. cells distinguish self from non-self by using ___________, which are unique to pathogens. Also bind with toll-like receptors
    PAMPs (pathogen-associated molecular patterns)
  7. secreted regulatory molecules that recruit or activate more immune cells are called _________
  8. ______ are the first to arrive at an infection, followed by macrophages/monocytes
  9. many ________ are organ specific in the spleen, lymph nodes, lungs, and brain.
  10. Neutrophils and monocytes squeeze through gaps in venule walls to enter tissue in a process called __________
    diapedesis (extravasation)
  11. the binding of antibodies to antigens does not destroy a pathogen; instead it labels a target for ________
    phagocytosis / attack / etc
  12. a group of plasma proteins activated by the binding of antibodies to antigens are called ___________. They promote lysis, inflammation, phagocytosis etc.
  13. Fever is regulated by the _____________
  14. endogenous ____________ set the body temperature higher
  15. While ____ is(are) caused by white blood cells releasing histamine in localized areas, ____ is(are) caused by systemic histamine release.
    hives; anaphylaxis
  16. redness, heat, swelling, & pain are _____________ responses
  17. mast cells release _____________, which causes dialated vessels and increased capillary permeability
  18. inflammation is initiated by __________ mechanisms
  19. Formation of antigen-antibody complexes amplifies nonspecific response, a process called ______________
  20. Signs of the inflammatory reaction are caused by _________.
    vasodialation & histamine
  21. The acquired ability to defend against specific pathogens after exposure to these pathogens is called __________ immunity (mediated by antigens and antibodies)
  22. Smaller, nonantigenic molecules that can become antigens when bound to other proteins are called _________. (SUCH AS in poison ivy: urishiol -> quinone, which reacts with skin proteins)
  23. small non-antigenic molecules that are useful in creating antigens- in research and diagnosis
  24. the agglutination (clumping) of particles & antibodies is measured in tests known as ________
  25. __-lymphocytes do NOT produce antibodies; they must be in close proximity to destroy the victim cell (AKA cell-mediated immunity)
  26. _-lymphocytes are active in humoral immunity; They secrete antibodies and combat bacterial infections
  27. __- lymphocytes divide into memory cells and plasma cells
  28. _-lymphocytes divide into cytotoxic, helper, and suppressor cells
  29. Helper T-cells alert plasma (B) and cytotoxic (T) cells during cell-mediated responses. These helper cells are the target of the ____ virus
  30. What molecules are found on the surface of both T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes that identify foreign invaders?
  31. Which cell type produces antibodies? Helper T cell, Macrophage, Plasma cell, OR Suppressor T cell?
    plasma cell
  32. Which cell type is the most important antigen-presenting cell (APC)?
  33. What is the importance of immunological memory? It saves _______
  34. Killer T cells secrete _______ to create pores in the victim cell, while it secretes ______ to trigger apoptosis in the victim cell
    perforins; granzymes
  35. _________ Improve ability of B lymphocytes to become plasma cells and enhance ability of cytotoxic T cells to kill targets
    T lymphocytes
  36. Generalized (innate/nonspecific) immunity includes ________ & ___________ protection
    physical ; chemical
  37. Specialized (specific) immunity involves ______ & ________
    T-cells and B-cells, etc
  38. genetic deficiencies in regulatory T-lymphocyte production may develop _______________
    autoimmune diseases and allergies
  39. Dendrite cells and macrophages (APC) help t-cells bind to _________
  40. Injection of anti-hepatitis antibodies after exposure to hepatitis A is an example of ____ immunity.
    artificial passive
  41. An infant who is NOT breast-fed is missing out on the continuation of which type of immunity?
    natural passive
  42. HIV attacks many types of white blood cells. Disabling which blood cell type prevents the activation of the entire immune response?
    helper t-cells
  43. _______ are abnormal clonal cells that dedifferentiate to an embryonic state. (due to mutation or viral antigen)
  44. ____________ arise when the immune cells fail to stop the growth/spread of tumors
  45. Tumor cells can evade immune surveillance by suppressing immunity with secretions of _________
    FAS ligand
  46. part of innate immunity, __________ cells do not have the ability to recognize specifc antigens
    Natural killer cells
  47. ________ is Produced by failure of immune cells to tolerate �self� antigens
    autoimmune disease
  48. The cell-mediated response of the immune system uses ____, while the antibody-mediated response uses _____.
    T and B cells; antibodies
  49. When a macrophage first encounters a pathogen, it activates ____ T cells, which activate ____ T cells.
    helper; cytotoxic
  50. If the immune system mistakenly launches an attack against �self� cells, it is the ____ cells that cause life-long autoimmune problems.
    memory cells
  51. When do autoimmune disorders occur?
    When the immune system attacks �self� cells.
  52. While ____ cause normal immune responses, ____ cause asthma
    antigens; allergens
  53. ________ is a determining factor in successful organ transplant compatability
    MHC --major histocompatibility complex
  54. allergies are in most part activated by immunoglobulin ___
  55. protection from future invasion is _________ immunity
  56. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is used to determine _________
  57. after being engulfed, the __________ (enzyme) breaks down bacteria
Card Set
Chapter 15 - immunity --test 3