Med-Term Ch. 13

  1. adren/o
    adrenal glands
  2. gonad/o
    • gonads
    • Male: testicales
    • Female: ovaries
  3. pancreat/o
    pancreatic islets: control blood sugar levels and glucose metabolism
  4. pineal/o
    pineal gland: influences sleep-wakefulness cycles
  5. pituit/o pituitar/o
    pituitary gland: secretes hormones that control the activity of other endocrine glands
  6. thym/o
    thymus: plays a major role in the immune reaction
  7. thyr/o, thyroid/o
    thyroid gland: stimulates metabolism, growth, and the activity of the nervous system
  8. Hormones are...
    specialized messengers that are secreted by endocrine glands and have specialized functions in regulating the activities of cells, organs, or both.
  9. the 13 major glands of the endocrine system are...
    • 1 pituitary
    • 1pineal gland
    • 1 thyroid gland
    • 4 parathyroid glands
    • 1 thymus
    • 1 pancreas (pancreatic islets)
    • 2 adrenal glands
    • 2 gonads
  10. any one of a large number of hormone like substances secreted by the endocrine glands or artificially produced to relieve swelling and inflammation
  11. these are chemically related to the male sex hormone testosterone and are used illegal by athletes. side effects may include liver damage, altered body chemistry, testicular shrinkage, and breast development in males, plus unpredictable mood swings and violence.
    anabolic steroids
  12. hormone secreted by adipocytes
  13. hormones that are secreted by specialized cells of the brain.
  14. a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and malfunctions of the endocrine glands
  15. any disease caused by a disorder of the endocrine system
  16. a condition due to excessive secretion of any gland.
  17. a condition caused by deficient secretion of any gland
  18. the pituitary hangs from the...
  19. stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol
    • adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
    • Ant Pituitary
  20. stimulates the growth of ova in females and the production of sperm in males
    • follicle-stimulation hormone (FSH)
    • Ant Pituitary
  21. also known as somatotropic hormone, regulates the growth of bone, muscle, and other body tissues.
    • growth hormone (GH)
    • Ant Pituitary
  22. stimulates ovulation in the female. stimulates the secretion of testosterone in the male.
    • interstitial cell-stimulating hormone (ICSH)
    • Ant Pituitary
  23. also known as prolactin, stimulates and maintains the secretion of breast milk.
    • lactogenic hormone (LTH)
    • Ant Pituitary
  24. stimulates ovulation and the secretion of progesterone in the female. in the male stimulates the secretion of testosterone.
    • luteinizing hormone (LH)
    • Ant Pituitary
  25. increases production of melanin thereby darkening the skin
    • melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
    • Ant Pituitary
  26. stimulates the growth and secretions of the thyroid gland
    • thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
    • Ant Pituitary
  27. maintains the water balance within the body by promoting the reabsorption of water through the kidneys.
    • antidiuretic hormone
    • Post Pituitary
  28. stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth and stimulates the flow of milk after childbirth. pitocin is a synthetic form
    • oxytocin
    • Post Pituitary
  29. abnormal enlargement of the extremities caused by excessive secretion of growth hormone after puberty
  30. abnormal overgrowth of the whole body caused by excessive secretion of growth hormone before puberty. Also known as giantism
  31. the pathology resulting in the excessive by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland
  32. condition of reduced secretion due to the partial or complete loss of function of the anterior pituitary gland
  33. any disorder of pituitary function
  34. also known as a pituitary tumor is a slow growing, benign tumor of the pituitary gland. there are two types of these tumors, functioning and nonfunctioning. explain each.
    • pituitary adenoma
    • functioning pituitary adenoma: often produce hormones is large, unregulated amounts.
    • nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma: do not produce significant amounts of hormones.
  35. a benign tumor of the pituitary gland that causes it to produce too much prolactin.
    in females this causes infertility and changes in menstruation.
    in males this causes impotence.

    This condition has two names.
    • prolactinoma
    • prolactin-producing adenoma
  36. caused by a insufficient production of the antidiuretic hormone of the inability of the kidneys to respond to this hormone.
    may cause polydipsia (excessive thirst) and polyuria (excessive urination)
    Diabetes insipidus
  37. also known as recombinant GH, is administered to stimulate growth when the natural supply of growth hormone is insufficient for normal development.
    human growth hormone
  38. small endocrine gland located in the centeral portion of the brain.
    pineal gland
  39. secreted by the pineal gland _________ influences sleep-wakefulness portions of the circadian cycle.
  40. a tumor of the pineal gland that can disrupt the production of melatonin
  41. surgical removal of the pineal gland
  42. the butterfly shaped _________ lies on either side of the larynx
    thyroid gland
  43. one of the primary functions of the thyroid gland is to regulate the body's ________. however, thyroid secretions also influence _______ and the functioning of the _________ system.
    metabolism, growth, nervous
  44. The two primary thyroid hormones are ________ and __________. These hormones affect the rate of metabolism.
    thyroxine, triiodothyronine
  45. __________ which is secreted by the thyroid gland, works with the parathyroid hormone to regulate calcium levels in the blood and tissues. This hormone decreases blood levels by moving calcium into storage in the bones and teeth.
  46. also known as chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, this condition is an autoimmune disease in which the body's own antibodies attack and destroy the cells of the thyroid gland.
    Hashimoto's thyroiditis
  47. Also known as underactive thyroid, this is caused by a deficiency of thyroid secretion.
    Symptoms include fatigue, depression, sensitivity to cold, and decreased metabolic rate.
  48. ________ is a congenital form of hypthyroidism. If left untreated it causes arrested physical and mental development
  49. Also known as adult hypothyroidism, caused by extreme deficiency of thyroid secretion.
    Symptoms include swelling around the eyes and cheeks, fatigue and subnormal temperature.
  50. Also known as thyrotoxicosis, is an imbalance of metabolism caused by overproduction of thyroid hormones.
    Symptoms include, increased metabloic rate, sweating nervousness, and weight loss.
  51. Also known as thyrotoxic crisis, this condition is a relativley rare, life-threatening condition cause by exaggerated hyperthyroidism.
    Patients experiencing this condition may complain of fever, chest pain, palpitations, shortness of breath, tremors, increased sweating, disorientation, and fatigue.
    Thyroid storm
  52. _______ ______ which is an autoimmune disorder is characterized by goiter and/or exophthalmos.
    Graves' Disease
  53. Also known as thyromegaly is and abnormal, nonmalignant enlargment of the thyroid. this enlargement produces a swelling in the front of the neck. This usually occurs when the thyroid gland cannot produce enough thyroid hormone to meet the body's needs.
  54. ___________ is an abnormal protrusion of the eyeball out of the orbit.
  55. the diagnostic test to measure the amount of thyroid stimulating hormone in the blood. This test is used to detect abnormal thyroid activity due to excessive pituitary stimulation.
    thyroid-stimulating hormone assay
  56. measures thyroid function and is a form of nuclear medicine
    thyroid scan
  57. a medication used to slow the ability of the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones
    antithyroid drug
  58. also known as radioactive iodine therapy, is the administration of radioactive iodine to destroy thyroid cells. This procedure which disables part of the thyroid gland is used to treat chronic hyperthyroid disorders such as graves' disease.
    chemical thyroidectomy
  59. surgical removal of one lobe of the thyroid gland. this term is also used to describe the removal of a lobe of the liver, brain, or lung.
  60. ________ are administered to replace lost thyroid function
    synthetic thyroid hormones
  61. the primary function of the parathyroid glands is to regulate _________ levels throughout the body.
  62. _________ hormone works with calcitonin to regulate calcium levels in the blood and tissues.
  63. Over production of parathyroid hormone which may lead to hypercalcemia.
  64. abnormally high levels of calcium in the blood, instead of being stored in the bones.
  65. Abnormally low levels of calcium in the blood
  66. A complication of hyperparathyroidism in which bone becomes softened and deformed, and may develop cysts. May be caused by overproduction of parathyroid hormone or by thyroid cancer.
    Osteitis fibrosa
  67. caused by an insufficient or absent secretion of the parathyroid hormone. This condition causes hypocalcemia and in severe cases leads to tetany.
  68. the condition of periodic, painful muscle spasms and tremors.
  69. The thymus secretes a hormone that functions as part of the _________ system.
  70. Stimulates the maturation of lymphocytes into T cles of the immune system.
  71. an inflammation of the thymus gland.
  72. Surgical removal of the thymus gland
  73. The parts of the pancreas that have endocrine functions.
    Pancreatic islets
  74. also known as blood sugar, is the basic form of energy used in the body.
  75. The form in which the liver stores excess glucose
  76. The hormone secreted by the alpha cells of the pancreatic islets in response to LOW blood sugar levels.
  77. The hormone secreted by the beta cells of the pancreatic islets in response to HIGH blood sugar levels.
  78. A benign tumor of the pancreas that causes hypoglycemia by secreting additional insulin.
  79. Pain in the pancreas.
  80. Inflammation of the pancreas, usually caused by long term alcohol abuse.
  81. Surgical removal of all or part of the pancreas
  82. Abnormally high concentration of glucose in the blood.
  83. Excessive thirst
  84. Excessive hunger
  85. Excessive urination.
  86. The condition of excessive secretion of insulin into the bloodstream.
  87. Abnormally low concentration of glucose in the blood.
  88. A group of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both.
    Diabetes mellitus
  89. An autoimmune insulin deficiency disorder caused by the destruction of pancreatic islets beta cells.
    Type 1 diabetes
  90. an insulin resistance disorder.
    Type 2 diabetes
  91. _________ _____________ lower blood sugar by causing the body to release more insulin. (medication)
    Oral Hypoglycemics
  92. (metformin hydrochloride) and similar medications works with the cells to combat insulin resistance and to help insulin let blood sugar into the cells.
  93. a form a diabetes mellitus that occurs during some pregnancies.
    Gestational diabetes
  94. measures the glucose levels after the patient has not eaten for 8-12 hours.
    fasting blood sugar test
  95. performed to confirm a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and to aid in diagnosing hypoglycemia.
    oral glucose tolerence test
  96. This test which requires a drop of blood and is performed by the patient, measures the current blood sugar level.
    Home blood glucose monitoring
  97. Measures average glucose levels over the past 3 weeks, and is able to detect changes more rapidly than HbA1c testing.
    fructosamine test
  98. A blood test that measures the average blood glucose level over the previous 3-4 months.
    hemoglobin A1c testing
  99. Caused by very low blood sugar. Oral glucose is administered to rapidly raise the blood sugar levels when this occurs.
    Insulin shock
  100. Caused by very high blood sugar. Also known as diabetic ketoacidosis, this condition is treated by the prompt administration of insulin.
    Diabetic coma
  101. Low BP, labored respiration, dry tongue, and dry skin may be symptoms of....
    High blood sugar
  102. Shallow or rapid respiration, excessive perspiration, lack of coordination, and dizziness may be symptoms of...
    Low blood sugar
Card Set
Med-Term Ch. 13
Medical terms from the medical terminology textbook by ann ehrlich and carol schroeder