ch 13 bio
What is the correct sequence of the transfer of information in most organisms?
DNA to RNA to Protein
What are 3 basic dogmas/theories of molecular biology?
VIRUSES SOMETIMES TRANSFER INFORMATION FROM DNA TO RNA
VIRUSES SOMETIMES TRANSFER INFORMATION FROM PROTEINS TO DNA
VIRUSES CAN TRANSLATE WITHOUT RNA
Which components may be in DNA or RNA?
PHOSPHATE GROUPS, CYTOSINE, GUANINE, ADENINE
Which nucleotide distinguishes RNA from DNA?
Where does transcription occur in eukaryotes?
What is produced during transcription?
How would you describe the mRNA product of transcription?
IT IS COMPLEMENTARY TO PART OF ONE STRAND OF DNA
mRNA is transcribed from which molecule?
DNA (active strand)
How is the genetic code always read?
3 BASES AT A TIME IN THE SAME DIRECTION
What is a promoter?
A BONDING SITE FOR RNA POLYMERASE
Where does translation occur in eukaryotes?
What happens during translation?
THE CELL USES mRNA CODE TO MAKE PROTEINS.
Which type of RNA brings the information in the genetic code from the nucleus to other parts
of the cell?
How many nucleotides are needed to specify three amino acids?
9 (3 nucleotides per amino acid)
There are 64 codons for 20 amino acids. How can this be?
EACH AMINO ACID IS SPECIFIED BY ONLY ONE CODON (called redundancy).
What determines the type of amino acid that is added to the growing polypeptide chain?
THE CODON ON THE mRNA AND THE ANTICODON ON THE tRNA
What does gene regulation accomplish in eukaryotes?
Which of the following is only part of the prokaryotic genes?
In E. coli, what does the lac operon control?
BREAKDOWN OF LACTOSE
How does the lac repressor turn off the lac genes?
BY BINDING TO THE OPERATOR
What regulates the expression of most eukaryotic genes?
What is the function of HOX genes?
THEY DETERMINE BODY PLAN
EXAMPLE – THEY DETERMINE THE LOCATION OF A DOG’S EARS
In eukaryotes, which is involved in the regulation of genes?
What is the impact of most every-day mutations?
No effect on the organism
What is a mutation called that involves one or a few nucleotides?
Which type of mutation can be either gene-based or chromosomal-based?
What happens during a deletion mutation?
INFORMATION IS LOST
What is an example of a chromosomal mutation?
What are some characteristics of polyploidy plants like strawberries?
THEY TEND TO BE BIGGER AND STRONGER THAN DIPLOID PLANTS.
ch 13 bio
ch 13 bio