What are some common myths about leaders?
- They have power over people
- Leaders are born not made
- Groups resist being led
- Leaders have little effect on the group
What are the realities of leadership?
- Power with people (not over)
- Leadership qualities are influenced by both nature and nurture
- People prefer to have leadership
- Leaders are influential
What are the interpersonal processes that a leader shares with his group as a leader?
- Reciprocal Process: Leader-Follower mutuality
- Transactional Process: Leaders & Followers work together
- Transformational Process: Leaders change people
- Cooperative Process: legitimate influence and not sheer power influence the group
- Adaptive, Goal-Seeking Process: organizes and motives members to attain goals.
What is the difference between task focused leadership and relationship focused leadership
- Task oriented: Focus on group's work and goal's
- Relationship oriented: Focus on interpersonal relationship
Men more task oriented, Women more relationship oriented
What qualities in a person influence leadership emergence?
- Emotional Intelligence: Perceive emotion in self and others, use that information productively.
- Skillful experienceActive within their group (Quantity must include quality)
- Physical Appearance: Older, taller, heavier, physically fit.
- Not as likely to be a minority
- More often male
What is the Implicit Leadership theory (ILT)
People develop their own personal, implicit beliefs of what qualities a leader should have to be a leader. According to theory, each person categorizes group members into leader and follower positions.
What theory suggests role expectations generate gender stereo-types especially task-oriented expectations.
What theory of leadership emergence suggests leaders emerge to ward off our awareness of mortality.
Terror Management Theory
What theory on leadership effectiveness assumes that leadership effectiveness is contingent on both the leaders' motivational style and the leader's capacity to control the group situation?
Contingency theory (Fiedler)
Part of Fiedler's theory that assumes some leaders preferr a particular style of leadership, either task oriented or relationship oriented. On what is this illustrated?
What type of effective leadership takes into account the group's stages of development?
Situational Leadership theory
What theory of effective leadership stresses the one-to-one relationship between leader and subordinate
Leader-member exchange theory
What type of participatory leadership is more democratic and more transformational than transactional
Type of leadership where leaders and followers raise one another to high levels of motivation and morality
Type of leadership where relationship based on exchange of resources
What do Transformational leaders emphasize
- Idealized influence: emphasize importance of trust, purpose, commitment, ethics
- Inspirational motivation: vision for the future
- Intellectual stimulation: stimulate new perspectives, ideas, methods
- Individualized considerations: concerned with others' needs, abilities, aspirations
What do Transactional leaders emphasize?
- Contingent reward: based on performance
- Management by exception: intervene at failure
What is the enhancement of an individual's performance when working with other people rather than when working alone called?
What would be considered coaction?
People working in the presence of other people, but not interacting with another
What would be considered a conjunctive task?
All group members must contribute; groups performance determined b y most inferior member
What would be considered a dominant response
A natural response that is easier to learn and perform
What would be considered a nondominant response?
A response that is more difficult to learn and perform
What theory suggests that the presence of others evokes a generalized drive state characterized by increased readiness and arousal
What theory suggests that people associate the presence of others with being evaluated?
Evaluation apprehension theory
-Evaluation apprehension enhances performance on simple task, but becomes debilitating on harder tasks.
What theory suggests that when others are present, attention is divided between the other people and the task?
What theory suggests that people who display a positive interpersonal orientation are more likely to display social facilitation effects?
Social orientation theory
What is EPM
Electronic Performance Monitoring - presence of others in a virtual sense.
What is the tendency for people to become less productive when they work with others?
What is the reduction of effort by individual's working in groups called?
What are the cures for the Ringleman effect
- Increase Identifiability of the members
- Minimize Free Riding
- Set Goals
- Increase Involvement (friendly competition, etc)
- Increase Group identifiability (entitativity)
What is the increase in performance by groups working on conjunctive tasks (where all members must contribute) due to increased effort by the less capable.
What are the four steps are included in the Nominal Group Technique for brainstorming
- Step 1: leader introduces the problem, then members work alone to generate ideas/solutions
- Step 2: Members meet together with each sharing their ideas in turn
- Step 3: Group discusses each item and focuses on clarification
- Step 4: Members rank the top 5 solutions they preferr
What are the four phases of the ODD-I way of group Decision making?
- Orientation Phase
- Discussion Phase
- Decision Phase
- Implementation Phase
What is the Voice Effect
Allowing people to have a voice in the matter increases their engagement
What are the different methods of decision making in the Normative model.
- Decide: Leader solves the problem and announces it to the group
- Consult (individual): leader shares problem with members individually, getting their ideas; leader then makes the decision
- Consult (Group): leader discusses the problem with the members as a group, then leader makes decision.
- Facilitate: leader coordinates a collaborative analysis of the problem, helping the group reach consensus
- Delegate: group reaches a decision without the leaders direct involvement, leader provides support.
What are some pitfalls to group discussion?
- Bolstering: make decision without thinking it through
- Denying responsibility
- Muddling Through: considering on a narrow range of alternatives
- Satisficing: (What "satisfies" will "suffice") accepting a low risk, easy solution
- Trivializing the Discussion: avoiding larger issue to deal with smaller issue
What is the tendency for groups to spend more time discussing info that all members know and less time examining info only a few know
Shared information bias
What are some of the causes of the Shared information bias?
- Desire for closure over desire to make a good decision
- Desire for Good Impression: People who Share more information appear more intelligent
What is the tendency to seek out information that confirms one's preferences?
What is the Risky-Shift Phenomenom?
The tendency for groups to make riskier decisions than individuals.
What is group polarization?
Tendency for group to draw more extreme conclusion in the initial direction of their preferential shift.
What are causes of Group Polarization?
- Social Comparison: Groups compare themselves to others, if different, will move toward's groups view.
- Persuasive Arguments
- Social Identity: persuaded by consesus of group not content of argument
What is a strong concurrence-seeking tendency in cohesive groups that interferes with effective group decision making?
What are some symptoms of groupthink?
- Overestimation of group: Illusion of invulnerability and/or morality
- Pressure to conformMindguards in placeDefective Decision Making
What are some causes of Groupthink?
- Leadership style (closed and rigid): agenda driven, controlling, etc
What is an organized, task focused group called?
What sets Teams apart from Groups?
- Intensity of the following attributes:
- Concentrated interaction
- Goals are colletiveInterdependent:Outcomes of all members actions tied to team members
- Structured: roles are well defined
- Unity: high degree of cohesiveness
- Teams are "hyper-groups"
What are the 5 Types of Teams?
- Executive teams and Command teams: boards of directors, corporate executive teams
- Project teams: Design teams, marketing groups, jury
- Advisory teams: Review panels, steering committees
- Work Teams: Manufacturing teams, maintenance crews
- Action Teams: Sports teams, orchestras, military units
What is the I-P-O model of teams?
Stands for Input, Process, Output
- Inputs: antecedent factors that influence members and the team itself
- Process: interaction processes that will bring about the outcomes
- Outcomes: Consequences of the team's activities
What is the combining of knowledge, skills, abilities, and other resources through coordinated actions to produce an outcome called?
What happens with Team Cognition?
Teams improve over time as they develop a shared understanding of the team and taks attempted
What are research supported suggestsions for using teams?
- Implement CLEAR Goals
- Stimulate Creative Discussion
- Create Action to Solve Problems