Ankle Joint

  1. What is the only true weight bearing bone of the leg?
  2. What are the 3 types of bone in the foot?
    • tarsals
    • metatarsals
    • phalanges
  3. How are the metatarsals numbered?
    1 thru 5
  4. Which of the metatarsals are weight bearing bones?
    1 & 5
  5. we tend to stand on a ___________
  6. Weight is borne from the base of the _________ to the heads of the ___________
    • calcaneus
    • 1st & 5th metatarsals
  7. What 3 parts can the foot be divided into?
    • hindfoot
    • midfoot
    • forefoot
  8. What is the hindfoot made up of?
  9. In the gait cycle the hindfoot is the part of the foot that does what?
    makes contact with the ground influencing the function and movement of the other 2 parts
  10. The midfoot is made up of what?
    • navicular
    • cuboid
    • 3 cuneiform bones
  11. What does the midfoot do?
    provides stability and mobility as it transmits movement from the hindfoot to the forefoot
  12. What is the forefoot made up of?
    • 5 metatarsals
    • all of the phalanges
  13. What does the forefoot do?
    adapts to the level of the ground
  14. Which part of the foot is the last part to make contact with the ground during stance phase?
  15. What are the 3 main functions performed by the ankle and foot?
    • shock absorber as the heel strikes the ground at the beginning of the stance phase
    • adapts to the level or unevenness of the ground
    • provides a stable base of supprt from which to propel the body forward
  16. What is the motion associated with plantar flexion?
    • toes go toward ground
    • i.e. - putting out a cigarette, putting toes in dirt
  17. What is the motion associated with dorsi flexion?
    toes come toward the shin
  18. In which plane and axis do both plantar flexion and dorsi flexion occur?
    • sagittal plane
    • frontal axis
  19. What is the motion associated with eversion (pronation)?
    • raising the lateral border of the foot
    • turning the forefoot outward
  20. What is the motion associated with inversion (supination)?
    • raising the medial border of the foot
    • turning forefoot inward
  21. Where do adduction and abduction occur?
    primarily in the forefoot
  22. What does adduction accompany?
  23. What does abduction accompany?
  24. In which plane does the movement in the forefoot occur?
    transverse plane
  25. What is the valgus position of the foot/ankle?
    position where the distal segments is positioned away from the midline
  26. What is the varus position of the foot/ankle joint?
    position where the distal segment moves toward the midline
  27. What is the Calcaneal Valgus position of the foot/ankle joint?
    position where the distal part of the calcaneous is angled away from the midline
  28. What are the 2 joints with little motion that aren't part of the true ankle joint but play a small role in the proper function of the ankle?
    superior/inferior tibiofibular joints
  29. What makes up the superior tibiofibular joint?
    articulation b/t the head of the fibula and posterior lateral aspec of the proximal tibia
  30. What does the plane joint do?
    allows small amount of gliding and rotatin of the fibula on the tibia
  31. Which joint in the ankle has a joint capsule?
    synovial joint
  32. What reinforces the capsule in the synovial joint?
  33. The capsule and synovial joint dissipate what?
    torsional stresses applied at the ankle joint
  34. What is the inferior tibiofibular?
    syndesmosis (fibrous) union b/t the concave distal tibia and convext distal fibula
  35. Is the inferior tibiofibular a synovial joint?
  36. Is the inferior tibiofibular have a joint capsule?
  37. In the inferior tibiofibular ________ separates bones and __________ hold the joint together
    • fibrous tissues
    • several ligaments
  38. Much of the ankle joint's strength depends upon what?
    a strong union at this joint
  39. The true ankle joint (talocrural or talotibial) is made up of what?
    • distal tibia that sits on the talus with the medial malleolus of the tibia fitting down around the medial asect of the talus
    • lateral malleolus of the fibula that fits down around the lateral aspect
  40. What makes up the mortise of the tenon & mortise joint?
    mlleoli of the tibia/fibula
  41. What makes up the tenon of the tenon & mortise joint?
  42. Which joint connects the leg and the foot and is responsible for controlling the majority of foot motion relative to the leg?
    true ankle joint - talocrural or talotibial
  43. The ankle is what kind of joint?
    uniaxial hinge joint
  44. The ankle consists of articulation between what?
    distal end and medial malleoulus of the tibia & the lateral malleolus of the fibula with the talus
  45. The ankle joint allows how many degrees of plantar flexion?
  46. The ankle joint allows how many degrees of dorsiflexion?
  47. What position is the ankle in when in anatomical position?
    neutral position
  48. At what angle is the axis of rotation of the ankle?
    N angle
  49. Why is the ankle's axis of rotation considered triplanar?
    b/c of motion around an obligquely oriented axis that passes thru all 3 planes
  50. At the ankle's axis of rotation, which malleolus extends more distally and lies more posteriorly than the other?
    lateral more than medial
  51. The axis of the ankle joint tips approximately 8 degrees from which plane?
    transverse plane
  52. The axis of the ankle joint tips approximtely 82 degrees from which plane?
    sagittal plane
  53. The axis of the anklejoint tips approximately 20 to 30 degrees from which plane?
    frontal plane
  54. During dorsiflexion the foot does what?
    comes up and out slightly (abduction)
  55. During plantar flexion the foot does what?
    goes down and slightly in (adduction)
  56. What is the open kinetic chain motion at the ankle joint?
    • leg fixed and the foot free to move
    • angle of the joint causes the foot to abduct during dorsi flexion and adduct during planar flexion
  57. Which motion at the ankle joint occurs when the foot is fixed on the ground and the leg moves over it?
    closed chain
  58. During dorsiflexion the leg does what?
    medially rotates on the foot caused by the angle of the joint
  59. During ankle plantar flexion the leg does what?
    laterally rotates on the foot
  60. Why is the leg rotation during ankle plantar flexion allowed?
    b/c of the slight movement that is possible at hte tibiofibular joint
  61. What does the convex talus do during ankle plantar flexion?
    glides posteriorly on the concave tibia
  62. What are the end feels for both dorsi and plantar flexion?
  63. Why are the end feels for both dorsi and plantar flexon considered soft tissue stretch?
    b/c of the tension in the joint capsule, ligaments, and tendons
  64. What makes up the subtalar or talocalaneal joint?
    bottom of talus on top of the calcaneous
  65. What kind of joint is the subtalar or talocalaneal joint?
    plane synovial joint with 1 degree of freedom
  66. Where does inversion/eversion occur in the subtalar or talocalaneal joint?
    at an oblique axis
  67. What makes up the transverse tasal joint - midtarsal?
    front part of calcaneus and talus articulating with the cuboid and navicular
  68. How much movement occurs b/t the nav. and calca. in the transverse tarsal joint - midtarsal?
    very little
  69. Movement in the transverse tarsal joint links what?
    the hindfoot and forefoot in eversion/inversion
  70. What motions are involved in inversion at the subtalar and transtarsal joints?
    includes a combination of abduction, pronation, and plantar flexion
  71. What motions are involved in inversion at the subtalar and transtarsal joints?
    includes a combination of adduction, pronation, and dorsiflexion
  72. Where do plantar and dorsiflexion primarly occur in the ankle?
    at the talocrural joint
  73. When the ankle moves in inversion/eversion where do these motions occur?
    at the subtalar/transverse tarsal joints
  74. The combined motions of all of the joints in the ankle allow the foot to do what?
    • assume almost any position in space
    • adapt to any irregular surface
  75. Point of reference for adduction/abductin in the foot joints is where?
    2nd toe which abducts in both directions but adducts only returning from abduction
  76. Joints metatarsal heads articulate with what?
    proximal phalanges
  77. The 5 MTP joints allow what motions?
    • flexion
    • extension
    • hyperextension
    • abduction
    • adduction
  78. Which MTP joint is the most mobile?
    1st MTP joint
  79. The 1st MTP joints allows approximately 45 degrees of what?
  80. The 1st MTP joint allows approximately 90 degres of what?
  81. In what phase of walking is hyperextension extremely important?
    toe off phase
  82. Each of the lesser toes (2-5) have what kinds of joints?
    • Proximal interphalangeals (PIP)
    • distal interphalangeals (DIP)
  83. Are the PIP and DIP in the foot as important as the ones in the hand?
  84. How many phalangeal joints are in the thumb and which ones?
    1 - IP interphalangeal joint
  85. Which joint in the ankle is rather thin anteriorly and posteriorly bu reinforcedby collateral ligaments on both sides?
    joint capsule
  86. The collateral ligament on the medial side is of the ankle joint is a triangular deltoid ligament whose apex is where?
    located along the tip of the medial malleolus
  87. The deltoid ligament spreads out and attaches where?
    to the talus, navicular, and calcaneus in 4 parts
  88. To allow the functions of the feet to occur the bones of the foot are arranged with what?
  89. How many arches are located between the calaneus to the heads of the 1st and 5th metatarsals?
    2 - medial & lateral longitudinal
  90. The medial arch makes up the medial border of the foot running from where and to what?
    from the calcaneus anteriorly thru the talus, navicular, and 3 cuneiforms anteriorly to the 1st 3 metatarsals
  91. What is at the top of the arch?
  92. Why is the talus referred to as the keystone of the arch?
    b/c it receives the weight of the body
  93. What does the arch do during weight?
    depresses somewhat - bearing thn recoils when weight is removed
  94. Where does the lateral longitudinal arch run from and to?
    from the calcaneus anteriorly thru the cuboid to the 4th, 5th metatarsals
  95. Where does the lateral longitudinal arch rest during weight bearing?
    on the ground
  96. Where does the transverse arch run from and to?
    from side to side thru the 3 cuneiforms to the cuboid
  97. What is the keystone of the transverse arch?
    2nd cuneiform
  98. the 3 arches are maintained by what?
    • the shape of their bones and relation to each other
    • the plantar liaments and fascia
    • the mm
  99. what are the most important features of the arches?
    ligaments ad fascia
  100. What does the spring ligament support?
    the medial side of the longitudinal arch
  101. What is the longest of the tarsal ligaments?
    long plantar ligament
  102. where does the long plantar ligament attach?
    posteriorly to the calcaneus and runs forward to attach on th cuboid and bases of the 3rd, 4th, and 5th metatarsals
  103. What is the primary support of the lateral longitudinal arch?
    long plantar ligament
  104. Which ligament assists the long plantar arch and where does it attach?
    • short plantar ligament
    • attaches the calcaneus to the cuboid
  105. What does the plantar fascia do?
    • acts as a tie rod keeping the calcaneus/talus from separating from the anterior tarsals/metatarsals head
    • increases the stability of the foot during weight bearing and walking
  106. Total muscular support to the arches has been estimated to bear only about what percentage of the total stresses to the arches?
  107. What makes up the stirrup of the foot?
    peroneus longus & tibialis anterior mm
  108. Where does the peroneus longus mm attach?
    descends the leg latteral before crossing the foot medially to join the tibialis anterior muscle
  109. Where does the tibialis anterior mm attach?
    descends the leg medially to meet the peroneus longus mm forming a U or stirrup
Card Set
Ankle Joint
Ankle Joint & Foot chapters