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  1. official/ chemical name
    how its listed in approved drug list
  2. generic name
    • -(non propryater) not for profit
    • -shorten form of the chemical name
  3. trade name
    • -brand name is propryater
    • -(for profit)
  4. pharmokinetics
    the study of the absorption, distribution, biotransformation, and excreation of drugs
  5. adverse reaction
    undesired effects of a drug refered to as the side effects
  6. toxicology
    the study of posion
  7. allergic reaction
    hypersenitivity reaction to the presence of a drug- in order to have an allergic reaction to drug had have to been exposed to the drug once before
  8. idiosyncratic reaction
    abnormal reaction to the presence of a drug on the 1st exposure
  9. antagonist
    when two drugs work against each other and decrease the effects of each other
  10. agonist
    drug combines w/receptors to initiate drug reactions
  11. pallative
    • just relieve symptoms (ex. pain medicine)
    • -does not relieve underline problem causing the symptoms
  12. prophylactic
    • drug given to prevent a disease
    • (ex. immunization)
  13. potentiate
    when two drugs are given together to increase effects of each other or prolong effects of each other
  14. tolerance
    reduced effects of a drug due to repeated use so that it requires an increased amount to get the same effects
  15. contraindication
    not suggested for (ex. pregnancy)
  16. drugs (medication)
    any substance used to help diagnosis, treat, cure, or prevent a disease
  17. list factors which influence prescribed medication dosage
    • -age
    • -disease
    • -body weight
    • -gender
    • -route of administration
    • -genetic make up
    • -pasbo factors
  18. who can legally prescribe medications?
    • -physicians
    • -psychiatrist
    • -psychologist
    • -nurse practioners (some drugs)
    • -vetenarians (animals)
  19. what is the nurse's role and responsibility related to drugs actions and interactions?
    • -administer in safe way
    • -assess pt before/ after administering meds
    • -teach pt about medication
    • -know adverse effects
  20. what are legal and ethical implications to med administration?
    • -do not give anything inappropriately or that cause serious side effects
    • -must know what drug is before giving it
    • (except w/experiment drugs)
  21. what is usp/nf
    • -USP united states pharmacopeia
    • -NF national formulary list of approved drugs in the US
  22. controlled substance act
    • -classify drugs by potential for abuse
    • -addiction accounts for how much
    • -many controlled substance are prescribed
  23. scheduled drugs
    classification of controlled substances by how addictive the drug is into schedules
  24. substance misuse
    improper use of a drug obtained for legitimate purposes
  25. habituation
    • -person feels better using the drug than when not using
    • -person can stop w/o physical, psychological problems
    • -not addiction
  26. substance dependence
    a state where a person has difficulty functioning unless they are the influence of a drug
  27. what are some resources for information about medication?
    • -drug guide
    • -professional websites
    • -pharmacy
    • -PDR (physicans desk guide)
    • -facility database
  28. substance abuse
    socially unacceptance use of drug for non-therapeutic purposes
  29. psycological dependence
    a complusive need of a drug
  30. physical dependence
    where one or more physical functions of the body becomes dependent on the presence of the drug in the body
  31. discuss nurse's role with scheduled drugs and addictions
    • -observe pt for signs of addiction
    • -do not inappropriatley give drugs when not needed
    • -acknowledge co-workers may be using drugs inappropriately
    • -do nare check with nurses from other shifts
  32. tablet
    compressed powder
  33. pill
    compresses power w/water
  34. capsule
    gel shell (vehicle for powdered medication)
  35. sustained release
    extends release of drug to be absorbed over a period of time
  36. enteric coated
    hard shell on drug to allow drug to pass stomach before it disolves
  37. solution
    liquid that contains 1 or more drugs disolved in it
  38. solute
    the drug that dissolves
  39. solvent
    the liquid the drug is dissolved in
  40. elixir
    a liquid that has alcohol, sugar and water
  41. syrup
    a lot of sugar w/water
  42. emulsion
    • suspension of fat globules in water
    • (ex. oil and vinger dressing)
    • usually topical
  43. suppository
    a drug thats in a base that will melt at body temp
  44. ointment
    medication in a fatty base for external use
  45. troches or lozenges
    medication that is in a candy base designed to be held in the mouth until it dissolve
  46. absorption
    • the process where the drug enters the body's fluids
    • -iv drugs are absorbed faster
    • -some topical are designed to be absorbed into the blood stream
    • -circulation is key in absorption into the blood stream
    • -parastalsis affects drugs taken only orally
    • -oral is the least reliable way to absorb drugs
  47. distribution
    how the drug is carried from the point of absorption to its site of action
  48. biotransformation
    • -how drugs is metabolized by the liver to become water soluable, has to do with drugs becoming deactivated/ destroyed
    • -all drugs must go through the liver before they can be destroyed and eliminated
  49. elimination
    • -how drugs leaves the body
    • -most drugs exits through urine by the kidneys (filters drugs)
    • -some drugs can be eliminated through the GI tract if not fully absorbed
    • -sweat, vomiting, respiration, through breast milk
  50. length of drug action
    how long it works in the body before drugs drops below therapeutic level
  51. half life
    the amount of time that it takes for half the drug to leave the body
  52. therapeutic level
    the level of the drug in the blood stream needed to take care of the symptoms/ problems it is given for
  53. sub- therapeutic level
    level at which drug is not effective
  54. toxic level
    • -higher than therapeutic level, overdosing
    • -drug becomes posion to the patient
  55. peak plasma level
    when the drug reaches its highest level in blood stream
  56. what is a medication order?
    • -written order from the doctor
    • -prescrption (Rx) for a drug
  57. what is the nurse role with a medication order?
    • -check order
    • -transcribe (take from order & add to med sheet)
    • -carry out order
    • -nurse can take an order over the phone with witness and must indicate it is a phone order
  58. what are the seven parts of a medication order?
    • -pt name
    • -date/time
    • -name of drug
    • -dose
    • -route of administration
    • (oral, inhalation, parentral, topical)
    • *if none is stated, it is assumed to be oral*
    • -frequency of administration
    • -signature of physican
  59. standing order without a termination date
    physican writes an order without a termination date (always given)
  60. standing order with a termination date
    order written with a termination date
  61. prn
    as needed medication
  62. single order
    one time order
  63. stat order
  64. transcribing orders
    transfering MD orders to the MAR
  65. discuss important aspects of transscribing orders
    • -rewrite order exactly as written
    • -call MD if you cannot read an order
    • -responsibilty of the nurse to make sure orders is transcribed
    • -unit secretary can transcribe
    • -nurse checks for accuracy
  66. how are medications supplied
    • -individually wrapped in unit dose packs
    • -single bottles
    • -multidose bottles
    • -stock supply on floor (Narc draw)
  67. how do we safeguard medication
    • -med cart must be locked & meds must be in drawers when nurse walks away
    • -Narcotics must be under double lock
    • -Narc counts are done @ start & finish of shift
  68. discuss what a nurse should know before administering meds
    • -must know about pt health history
    • -conditions
    • -drug allergies
    • -must know about the drug
    • -safe dose
    • -side effects
    • -contradictions
    • -nursing implications
    • -what it is being given for
    • -reassessment of Pt
    • -know on set of medication
  69. list the five rights of medication of administration
    • RIGHT
    • -pt
    • -medication
    • -route
    • -dose
    • -time
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