Nutr 1-6

  1. Absorption
    the uptake of nutrients by the cells of the small intestine for transport into either the blood or the lymph
  2. Acesulfame-K
    • Potassium salt
    • Not digested or absorbed
    • Sweetness= 200
    • 0 calories
    • 30 cans of diet soda
    • not digested or absorbed
  3. Adequacy
    providing all the essential nutrients, fiber, and energy in amt sufficient to maintain health
  4. AI
    • Adequate Intakes
    • avg daily amt of a nutrient that appears sufficient to maintain a specified criterion
    • value used as a guide for nutrient intake when an RDA cannot be determined
  5. AMDR
    • Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges
    • ranges of intakes for the energy nutrients that provide adequate energy and nutrients and reduce the risk of chronic diseases
  6. Amino acids
    • Building blocks of proteins
    • Each contains an amino grou, an acid group, a hydrogen atom, and a distinctive side group, all attached to a central carbon atom.
    • amino= containing nitrogen
  7. Antibodies
    • large proteins of the blood and body fluids, produced by immune system in repsonse to invasion of body by foreign molecules
    • can combine with and inactivate foreign invaders, thus protecting the body
  8. Aspartame
    • amino acids and a methyl group
    • digested and absorbed
    • Sweetness = 200
    • 4 calories
    • 18 cans diet soda
    • contains phenylalanine
  9. Balance
    providing foods in proportion to one another and in proportion to the body's needs
  10. Bile
    • Produced by liver
    • stored by gallbladder
    • emulsify fat globules
  11. CCK
    • cholecystokinin
    • hormone produced by cells of intestinal wall
    • works on Gall bladder to relase bile and slowing of GI motility
  12. Cholesterol
    • one of the sterols containing a four ring carbon structure with a carbon side chain
    • eggs, meat(red), fish, poultry, dairy products
  13. Chylomicrons
    • the class of lipoproteins that transport lipids from the intestinal cells to the rest of the body
    • triglycerides, cholesterol and phospholipids use them
  14. Collagen
    protein from which connective tissues such as scars, tendons, ligaments, and the foundations of bondes and teeth are made
  15. Complementary proteins
    two or more dietary proteins whose amino acid assortments complement each other in such a way that the essential amino acids missing from one are supplied by the other
  16. Deamination
    • removal of the amino (NH2) group from a compound such as an amino acid
    • ammonia to liver to urea to blood and some in urine
  17. Denaturation
    change in a protein's shape and consequent loss of its function brought about by heat, agitation, acid, base, alcohol, heavy metals, or other agents
  18. Dental caries
    decay of teeth
  19. Dietary Guidelines 2005
    • 2000 kcal diet
    • Fruit=2c
    • Veg=2.5c
    • Grain=6oz
    • Meat/legume=5.5oz
    • Milk=3c
    • Oils=6tsp
    • discretionary=267kcal
  20. Digestion
    process by which food is broken down into absorbable units
  21. Dipeptide
    Two amino acids bonded together
  22. Disaccharide
    Two saccharides bonded together
  23. Discretionary kcalorie allowance
    the kcalories remaining in a person's energy allowance after consuming enough nutrient-dense foods to meet all nutrient needs for a day
  24. DRI
    • Dietary Reference INtakes
    • set of nutrient intake values for healthy people in US and Canada. Used for planning and assessing diets
    • EAR
    • RDA
    • AI
    • UL
  25. EAR
    • Estimated average requirements
    • average daily amt of a nutrient that will maintain a specific biochemical or physiological function in half the healthy people of a given age or gender
  26. EER
    • Estimated energy requirement
    • avg dietary energy intake that maintains energy balance and good health in a person of a given age, gender, weight, height, and level of physical activity
  27. Elimination
    the process of ridding the body of wastes
  28. Energy Density
    measure of the energy a food provides relative to the amount of food (kcalories per gram)
  29. Enriched
    addition to a food of nutrients that were lost during processing so that the food will meet a specified standard
  30. Enzymes
    proteins that facilitate chemical reactions without being changed in the process; protein catalysts
  31. Esophagus
    food pipe; the conduit from the mouth to the stomach
  32. Essential
    required for a healthy lifestyle. Not made by the body so must be obtained from outside source.
  33. Exchange list
    diet-planning tools that organize foods by their proportions of carbohydrate, fat, and protein
  34. Fiber
    nondigestable parts of food that may or may not be used by GI bacteria, roughage for excretion
  35. Food label
    List of ingredients and nutritional factors of item inside package
  36. Fortified
    • addition to a food of nutrients that were either not originally present or present in insignificant amt.
    • Fortification can be used to correct or prevent a widespread nutrient deficiency or to balance the total nutrient profile of a food
  37. Fructose
    • simple
    • monosaccharide;
    • sometimes known as fruit sugar or levulose
    • found abundantly in fruits, honey, and saps
  38. Galactose
    monosaccharide; part of disaccharide lactose
  39. Gall bladder
    • organ that stores and concentrates bile
    • when it receives the signal that fat is present it contracts and squirts bile through the bile duct into the duodenum
  40. Gastrin
    • hormone secreted by cells in the stomach wall.
    • targets stomach glands to allow for secretion of gastric acid
  41. Glucagon
    • increases blood glucose levels
    • signals liver to break down glycogen
    • takes glucose out of storage
  42. Gluconeogenesis
    making of glucose from a protein
  43. Glucose
    • simple
    • monosaccharide;
    • sometimes known as bood sugar or dextrose
  44. Glycemic index
    method of classifying foods according to their potential for raising blood glucose
  45. Glycogen
    • animal polysaccharide composed of glucose
    • manufactured/stored in liver and muscles as a storage form of glucose
    • not a significant food source of carbohydrate and not counted as a complex carb
  46. Goblet Cells
    cells of GI tract and lungs that secrete mucus
  47. HDL
    • high density lipoprotein
    • type of lipoprotein that transports cholesterol back to the liver from the cells
    • composed primarily of protein
    • Good Cholesterol
  48. Hepatic Portal Vein
    vein that collects blood from GI tract and conducts it to capillaries in the liver
  49. High quality protein
  50. Hydrochloric acid
    an acid composed of hydrogen and chloride atoms that is normally produced by gastric glands
  51. Hydrogenation
    • chemical process by which hydrogens are added to monunsaturate or polyunsaturated fatty acids to reduce the number of double bonds, making fats more saturated and resistant to oxidation
    • production of trans-fatty acids
    • protects against spoilage
  52. Ingestion
    process of taking food into the mouth to begin digestion
  53. Inorganic
    Contains no carbon or pertaining to living things
  54. Insoluble fiber
    • nonstarch polysaccharides that do not dissolve in water
    • ie tough, fibrous structures such as strings of celery and skins of corn kernals
    • alleviate constipation and prevent diventricular disease
    • vegetables, whole grains
  55. Insulin
    • decreases blood glucose levels
    • moves glucose into cells
    • promotes formation of glycogen
  56. Kcalorie
    • units by which energy is measured. 1000 calories = 1kcal
    • amount of heat needed to raise 1kg of H2) 1degree Celsius
  57. Ketone bodies
    metabolic products of incomplete breakdown of fat when glucose is not available in the cells
  58. Kwashiorkor
    form of PEM that results either from inadequate protein intake or infections
  59. Lactase
    enzyme that hydrolyzes lactose
  60. Lactose
    • simple
    • disaccharide composed of
    • glucose and galactose;
    • commonly known as milk sugar
  61. Large Intestine
    • colon
    • lower portion of intestine that completes digestive process
  62. LDL
    • low-density lipoprotein
    • type of lipoprotein derived from very-low-density lipoproteins as VLDL triglycerides
    • composed primarily of cholesterol
    • Bad Cholesterol
  63. Lecithin
    • one of the phospholipids
    • nature and food industry use as an emulsifier to combine water-soluble and fat-soluble ingredients that do not ordinarily mix, such as water and oil
    • glycerol head: 2 fa, and phosphate group with choline
  64. Linoleic
    • essential fatty acid with 18 carbons and 2 double bonds
    • Omega-6
    • Includes sunflower and soybean oils
  65. Linolenic
    • essential fatty acid with 18 carbons and 3 double bonds
    • Omega-3
    • ie flaxseed and canola oil
  66. Lipase
    • enzyme that hydrolyzes lipids
    • breaks down fats into smaller pieces of fat
    • enzyme
    • produced by pancreas
  67. Liver
    organ that manufacture bile
  68. Marsmus
    form of PEM that results from a severe deprivation, or impaired absorption, of energy, protein, vitamins, and minerals
  69. Micelles
    • tiny spherical complexes of emulsified fat that arise during digestion
    • emulsified monoglycerides and free fatty acids that are surrounded by bile acid molecules
    • long chain fatty acid, monoglyceride
  70. Microvilli
    tiny, hairlike projections on each cell of every villus that can trap nutrient particles and transport them into the cells
  71. Moderation
    providing enough but not too much of a substance
  72. Monosaccharide
    • carbohydrate of the general formula
    • CnH2nOn
  73. Monounsaturated
    singular bond between saturated fats
  74. Mouth
    oral cavity containing the tongue and teeth
  75. Mucus
    slippery substance secreted by cells of GI lining that protects the cells from exposure to digestive juices
  76. Nitrogen balance
    amount of nitrogen consumed as compared with the amount of nitrogen excreted in a given period of time
  77. Nonessential
    Body produces these naturally without requirement from outside source or food intake
  78. Nutrient
    chemical substances obtained from food and used in the body to provide energy, structural materials, and regulating agents to support growth, maintenance, and repair of the body's tissues.
  79. Nutrition Assessment
    comprehensive analysis of a person's nutrition status that uses health, socioeconomic, drug, and diet histories, anthropometric measurements, physical examinations and lab tests.
  80. Omega-3
    polyunsaturated fatty acid in whichthe first double bond is three carbons away from the methyl CH3 end of the carbon chain
  81. Omega-6
    polyunsaturated fatty acid in which the first double bond is six carbons from the methyl CH3 end of the carbon chain
  82. Organic
    substance or molecule containing carbon-carbon bonds or carbon-hydrogen bonds. Excludes single carbon molecules
  83. Pancreas
    gland that secretes digestive enzymes and juices into the duodenum
  84. Pepsin
    • gastric enzyme that hydrolyzes protein
    • is secreted in inactive form, pepsinogen, which is activated by HCL in stomach
  85. Peptidase
    digestive enzyme that hydrolyzes peptide bonds
  86. Peptide Bond
    bond that connects the acid end of one amino acid with the amino end of another, forming a link in a protein chain.
  87. Peristalsis
    wavelike muscular contractions of GI tract that push its contents along
  88. Phospholipids
    compound similar to a triglyceride but having a phosphate group and choline in place of one of the fatty acids
  89. Polypeptide
    2+ amino acids bonded together
  90. Polysaccharide
    2+ saccharide molecules bonded together
  91. Polyunsaturated
    • multiple bonds between fatty acids
    • Linoleic acid O6
    • Linolenic acid O3
    • more susceptible to spoilage
  92. Prebiotics
    food components(fiber) that are not digested in the small intestine, but are used instead as food by bacteria to encourage their growth or activity
  93. Protein turnover
    degradation and synthesis of protein
  94. RDA
    • Recommended Dietary Allowances
    • avg daily amt of a nutrient considered adequate to meet the known nutrient needs of practically all healthy people
    • a goal for dietary intake by individuals
  95. Refined
    process by which coarse parts of food are removed
  96. Saccharin
    • artificial sweetener approved in US as table top sweetener rather than additive
    • used to carry cancer-causing warning label
    • easily absorbed and excreted in urine
  97. Saturated
    • triglyceride in which most of fatty acids are saturated
    • contains only single bonds between carbons
    • include most animal fats
    • include stearic acid
  98. Secretin
    hormone produced by cells in duodenum wall targeting pancreas for release of bicarbonate rich pancreatic juice
  99. Small intestine
    • 10 ft long of small diameter
    • major site of digestion of food and absorption of nutrients
  100. Soluble fiber
    • nonstarch polysaccharides that dissolve in water to form a gel
    • ie pectin for jelly
    • lowers blood cholesterol and blood glucose levels
    • from oat, barley, legumes, citrus fruits
  101. Sorbitol
    • sweetener to make medicine taste better
    • found in 'sugar free' candy and gums
  102. Starch
    plant polysaccarides composed of glucose
  103. Sterols
    compounds containing a four ring carbon structure with any of a variety of side chains
  104. Stevia
    • Glycosides found in the leaves of the Stevia rebaudiana herb
    • Digested and absorbed
    • Sweetness = 300
    • 0 calories
    • 4mg/kg of body weight
    • recently receive GRAS approval by FDA
  105. Stomach
    muscular, elastic, saclike portion of the digestive tract that grind and churns swallowed food, mixing it with acid and enzymes to form chyme
  106. Sucralose
    • Sucrose with Cl atoms instead of OH groups
    • Not digested or absrobed
    • Sweetness=600
    • 0 calories
    • 6 cans diet soda
    • modified sucrose, tabletop sweetener
  107. Sucrose
    • simple
    • disaccharide composed of
    • glucose and fructose
  108. Trans-fatty acid
    fatty acids with hydrogens on opposite sides of the double bond
  109. Triglycerides
    • chief form of fat in the diet and major storage form of fat in body
    • 1 glycerol: 3 fatty acids
  110. Type 1 diabetes
    less common type of diabetes in which the pancreas fails to produce insulin
  111. Type 2 diabetes
    more common type of diabetes in which the cells fail to respond to insulin
  112. UL
    • Upper Intake Levels
    • max daily amt of a nutrient that appears safe for most healthy people and beyond which there is an increased risk of adverse health effects
  113. Unsaturated
    • triglycerides in which most of the fatty acids are unsaturated
    • contain at least one double bond between carbons
  114. USDA Food Guide
  115. Variety
    Eating a wide selection of foods within and among the major food groups
  116. Villi
    • fingerlike projections from the folds of the small intestine
    • increase surface area of sm. int.
    • aid w/ digestion and absorption
  117. VLDL
    • very low density lipoprotein
    • type of lipoprotein made primarily by liver cells to transport lipids to various tissues in body
    • composed primarily of triglycerides
    • Very Bad Cholesterol
  118. Whole Grain
    grain that maintains the same relative proportions of starchy endosperm, not refined
  119. 6 classes of nutrients
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids (fats)
    • Proteins
    • Vitamins
    • Minerals
    • Water
  120. kcalorie to kjoule
  121. kjoule to kcalorie
Card Set
Nutr 1-6
general nutrition