
The discovery and developement of raw or improved products, services, or processes for producing or providing them
Technological Innovation

The application of scientific discoveries to the devlopement and improvement of products and services and operation processes
Technology

A nonrepetative set of activities directed toward a unique goal within a limited time frame.
Project

Linking key product or service requirements to process capabilities
Product or Service Profiling

Machinery that has sensing and control devices that enable it to operate automatically
Automation

The use of computers in process control
Computeraided manufacturing (CAM)

Machines that perform operations by following mathmatical processing instructions
Numerically controlled (N/C) machines

A machine consisting of a mechanical arm, a power supply, and a controller
Robot

Layout that uses standardized processing operations to achieve smooth, rapid, highvolume flow
Product Layout

Standardized layout arranged according to a fixed sequence of production tasks
Production Line

Standardized layout arranged according to a fixed sequence of assembly tasks
Assembly line

layouts that can handle varied processing requirements
Process layouts

Nonrepetitive processing
Intermittent processing

layout in which the product or project remains stationary, and workers, materials, and equipment are moved as needed
fixedposition layout

layout in which workstations are grouped into a cell that can process items that have similar processing requirements
Cellular production

The grouping into parts families of items with similar design or manufacturing characteristics
Group Technology

A group of machines designed to handle intermittent processing requirements and produce a variety of similar products
Flexible Manufacturing system (FMS)

a system for linking a broad range of manufacturing activities through an intergrating computer system
Computerintigrated manufacturing (CIM)

The process of assigning tasks to workstations in such a way that the workstations have approximately equal time requirements
Line balancing

The maximum time allowed at each workstation to complete its set of tasks on a unit
Cycletime

A diagram that shows elemental tasks and their precedence requirements
Precedence diagram

Percentage of idle time of a line
Balance Delay

Mathematical statement of profit (or cost, etc) for a given solution
Objective Function

Amounts of either imputs or outputs
Decision Variables

Limitations that restrict the available alternatives
Constraints

The set of all feasible combinations of decision variables as defined by the constraints
Feasible Solution Space

Graphical method for finding optimal solutions to two variable problems
Graphical Linear Programming

A constraint that does not form a unique boundary of the feasible solution space
Redundant Constraint

Substituting the coordinates of each corner point into the objective function to determine which corner point is optimal.
Enumeration approach

A constraint that forms the optimal corner point of the feasible solution space
Binding constraint

When the values of decisions variables are substituted into a _> constraint the amount by which the resulting value exceeds the rightside value
Surplus

When the values of decision variables are substituted into a _< constraint the amount by which the resulting value is less than the rightside value
Slack

A linear programming algorithm that can solve problems having more than two decision variables
Simplex

Numerical Constants
Parameters

Assessing the impact of potential changes to the numerical values of an LP model
Sensitivity analysis

Range of values over which the solution quantities of all the decision variables remain the same.
Range of Optimality

Amount by which the value of the objective function would change with a oneunit change in the RHS value of a constraint
Shadow Price

Range of values for the RHS of a constraint over which the shadow price remains the same
Range of feasibility

