How do unicellular organisms move?
by cillia and flagella. Made of eleven microtubules (nin paired in a circle with two in the middle)
Flatworms use what two muscles to move?
- longitudinal and circular muscles against resistance of the incompressible fluid.
- Circular lengthens and longitudinal shortens
What are the bristles that keep a worm to the ground called?
What are exoskeletons formed out of?
How to organisms with an exoskeleton overcome their limitation to grow?
What are the two types of bone and their purpose?
- Compact: matrix is made of osteons, which is composed of a Haversian canal and a conber of lamellae.
- Spongy: consist of spicules with yellow or red bone marrow.
What are the two types of osteocytes and their purpose?
- Osteoblasts: build up bone
- Osteoclasts: destroy bone
What are the two ways bones are ossified?
- endochondral ossification: existing cartilage is replaced by bone
- intramembranous ossification: connective tissue is replaced by bone
What consists of the axial and appendicular skeletons?
- axial: skull, vertebral column, rib cage
- appendicular: bones of the appendages and the pectoral and pelvic girdles.
What are ligaments?
bone to bone connectors
What are tendons?
muscle to bone connectors
What are the three types of muscle in mammals?
- skeletal: somatic nervous system, multinucleated, striated
- smooth: autonomic nervous system, one nucleus, lack striations
- cardiac: striated, one or two nuclei
What is the breakdown of a muscle?
muscle, muscle fiber, myofibrils, sarcomeres, actin and myosin
What are the ABC's of a sarcomere?
- Z line: length of sarcomere
- I band: only actin
- A band: length of myosin in a sarcomere
- H line: only myosin
- M line: Middle line
What is the latent period?
time between stimulation and the onset of contraction
What is a state of partial contraction called?