history 11

  1. "We in America today anew near to the triumph over poverty than ever before in the history of any land. The poorhouse is vanishing from among us."
    Herbert Hoover
  2. "I have no fears for the future of our country. Its bright with hope."
    Herbert Hoover inguinal address
  3. margin accounts
    "easy-credit" you would pay a stock broker in installments with a small down payment, borrowing the rest from the broker and using the shares as collateral on the loan. "buying on the margin" brought new customers to the stock market.
  4. “Black Tuesday”
    October 29, over 6 million shares, more than double the previous record, were traded as panic selling took hold
  5. Reconstruction Finance Corporation
    made government credit available to banks, railroads and insurance companies, etc. to stimulate the economy. The RFC managed to save numerous banks and other business from going under but its approach didn’t hasten the recovery. Hoover was reluctant on using the RFC to make direct grants to states, cities, or individuals.
  6. Emergency Relief Act 1932
    Passed by congressional Democrats which authorized the RFC to lend $300 million to states that had exhausted their own relief funds. Hoover Grudging signed the bill, but less than $30 million was actually given out by the end of 1933
  7. Bonus Army
    $1,000 bond given to unemployed WWI vets to be paid in 1945. Vets marched on Washington in the spring and summer of 1932 demanding immediate payment. Senate rejected a House bill.
  8. New Deal
    3 R's of the new Deal an ambiguous collection of policies designed to promote Relief, Recovery, and Reform. The New Deal encouraged labor organizing by legally assuring the right to union membership for the first time in American history.
  9. Election of 1932
    Franklin D. Roosevelt Democrats nominated governor of New York for Presidency. The Democratic victory was overwhelming, Roosevelt carried 42 states taking the electoral college 472 to 59 and the popular vote by 23 million to 16 million.
  10. Emergency Banking Act
    1933 Act that gave the president broad discrectionary powers over all banking transactions and foreign exchange.
  11. “Brains Trust”
    FDR's key advisors, Economist, Lawyers, Professors. To counsel him in the White House. They gave conflicting advise but, the "brain trusters" shared a basic belief in expert directed government -business cooperation.
  12. The Hundred Days
    March 9 to June 16,1933, Length of the first session of the New Deal The Second Hundred Days- advisors propose left turn. Goals - create jobs, provide security against old, unemployment, improve housing conditions
  13. Civilian Conservation Corps
    Jobless young men 18-25 in protecting and conserving the nations natural resources. Road construction, reforestation, flood control, and national park improvements were some major projects. More than 2 million youths had worked in some 1,500 CCC camps. Paid $30 per month; $25 had to be sent back home to families. phased out in 1942 because they went out to war.
  14. Federal Emergency Relief Administration
    1933-$5 million for (FERA) half the money $250 million went to direct relief to states, the other $250 million distributed on basis of a dollar of federal aid for every three dollars of local and state relief, Harry Hopkins, director
  15. Agricultural Adjustment Act
    - To Provide immediate relief to the nations farmers. Paid farmers subsidies for reducing acreage/ cutting production. Subsides paid by new taxes on food processing. The AAA established a new federal role in agricultural planning and price setting. Famers could receive benefit payments in return for reducing acreage or otherwise cutting production where surpluses existed.
  16. Tennessee Valley Authority
    Economic development and cheap electricity for Tennessee Valley. Was part of the public works project they also created dams and power plants to help control areas of flooding.
  17. National Industrial Recovery Act
    Relaxed anti-trust laws to allow business leaders to confer about standards, production, prices wages, etc. allowed labor unions to bargain collectively . Established minimum wages and maximum hours.
  18. Public Works Administration
    Authorized 3.3 billion for the construction of roads, public buildings etc. but spent 4.2 billion. Led by Harold Ickes, provided jobs to stimulate the economy
  19. American Liberty League
    Group of conservative businessmen
  20. Father Charles Coughlin
    A Catholic priest in the suburban Detroit with a large national radio audience.He attacked FDR in passionate broadcasts that also denounced Wall Street, international bankers and Jews and capitalism. New deal part of a communist conspiracy. National union for social justice
  21. Upton Sinclair
    novelist and socialist who entered the 1934 Democratic primary for governor by running on a program called EPIC ( "End Poverty in California") $50 per month pension for those over 60 , "Reduction for use" workshops for unemployed.
  22. Dr. Francis Townshend
    Retired Long Beach physician who won a large following among senor citizens with his old age Revolving Pension Plan. He called for $200 per month to all people over sixty. You had to spend it within 30 days. Financed by 25 tax on commercial transactions.
  23. Schecter v. United States (1935)
    Found the National Recovery Act unconstitutional in its entirety. Congress cannot regulate interstate commerce, statue unconstitutional for president to
  24. Butler v. United States (1936)
    The court invalided the AAA declaring it an unconstitutional attempt at regulating agriculture
  25. Social Security Act of 1935
    Federal old age pensions and unemployment insurance. Payroll tax on employers and workers, Retirees to receive to receive monthly pension after 65, original law did not cover domestics and farm workers, monthly pension started at $10. Unemployment compensation.
  26. National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act)
    Made union organizing easier by guaranteeing the right of workers to join unions and bargain collectively.
  27. John Lewis
    Union official of the United Mine Workers,.
  28. Congress of Industrial Organizations
    John Lewis and Sidney Hillman formed the CIO organizing mass-production workers by industry - regardless of a workers lack of skill.
  29. New Deal coalition
    Traditional white southern Democrats, Big -city political machines, trade unionists, famers, African Americans, Catholic and Jewish immigrant
  30. Dust Bowl
    Colorado, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas,
  31. “Okies”
    People who migrated from Missouri, and Arkansas to California majority of blue collar workers and small businessmen hoping to improve their economic lot.
  32. Indian Reorganization Act of 1934
    The IRA reversed the allotment provision of the Dawes Severity Act which had weakened tribal sovereignty by shifting the distribution of land from tribes to individuals. The new legislation permitted the restoration of surplus land to tribal ownership. Allocated funds to purchase additional land and for economic development. John Collier.
  33. Eleanor Roosevelt
    Distant cousin of and married to Franklin D. Roosevelt and niece of President Theodore Roosevelt, Revolutionized the role of first lady, minorities loved her. Supported liberal causes, wrote a syndicated newspaper "my day"
  34. Frances Perkins
    FDR's secretary of labor and the nations' first woman cabinet member.
  35. Fair Labor Standards Act
    Federal minimum wage and maximum hours.
  36. Dorothea Lange
    Captured the lonely despair of unemployment in White Angel Breadline, San Francisco, 1933. Lang specialized in photographing portraits of wealthy families, but she could no longer stand the contradiction between her portrait business and what was going on around her.
  37. Glass - Steagall Banking Act 1933
    Established the federal deposit insurance Corporation ( FDIC) which is insures private bank accounts for up to $5,000(today it is $250,000.
  38. Why did the workers strike at the General Motors plant in Flint, Michigan?
    What was the outcome of the strike? Many people were striking because the loss of jobs at GM, at 56,000 to 17,000 people who lost their jobs, the idea was to strike until GM and the strikes can come up with a collective agreement. Flint strikers were considered the sit-down community due to their total 525 sit-down strikes. The overall production for GM dropped from 53,000 vehicles per week to 1,500. the outcome of the strike growth of in union membership in the automobile and other mass production industries. Significant improvements in wages working conditions, and even benefits
  39. What were the causes of the Great Depression?
    Unequal distribution of wealth/ purchasing power. Bad loans to foreign and individual investors. Reliance on construction and auto industries. Declining agricultural prices, drop in agricultural exports, large debts for farmers. Buying stock on margin.
  40. Why did FDR attempt to “pack the court?” What effects did this attempt have?
    FDR'S response to Schecter and Butler rulings, Asked Congress to expand the number of Justices from 9 to 15, one would be added for evey justice over the age of 70 who would not retire.,
  41. What effect did the New Deal have on African Americans?
    Last hired, first fired, traditional jobs affected, often suffered discrimination in the New Deal Programs, "black Cabinet"
  42. What effect did the New Deal have on Mexican Americans?
    Competed with okies for farm work, discriminations in releif and hiring
  43. What film genres were popular in the 1930s?
    John Steinbeck’s - The Grapes of Wrath Margaret Mitchells - Gone with the wind Mr. Smith goes to Washington,
  44. What types of radio shows were popular in the 1930s?
    Influx of talent Vaudeville and recording industry, Amos n' Andy, ma Perkins, inner sanctum, 905 of Americans owned radios.
  45. Who were the popular musicians of the 1930s?
    Benny Goodman " The King Of Swing"
  46. Legacy of the New Deal
    Not as radical as critics charged Expanded the role of federal government Begigning of the modern welfare states Democates majority until1960
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history 11
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