Music: Classical Era

  1. Viennese Classicists
    Haydyn, Mozart, Beethoven
  2. Characteristics of the Classical Style:
    texture, mood, dynamics, rhythm, melody, instruments
    • texture: smooth shifts from one texture to another, primarily homophonic, when polyphony was used it was much less dense than in Baroque
    • mood: there was a lot of contrast w/in a single movement, themes in different moods
    • dynanamics: widespread use of crescendo and decrescendo as well as the sforzando
    • rhythm: many patterns, same unexpected pauses/syncopation
    • melody: simpler than Baroque, symmetrical, even phrases
    • instruments: end of the basso continuo, too complicated for "natural man", it was thought that if music had to be heard more than once it could not truly be appreciated
  3. Emphasis on Balance
    • clarity of structure
    • ex: excerpt from Amadeus: Emperor Joseph II said there were "too many notes"
    • premeire of Mozart's opera-abduction of Seraglio, it was a singpsiel ("song-play")
  4. Vocal Music: Mozart's Opera: Don Giovanni
    • Italian dark comic opera
    • Don Giovanni: baritone, Leporello: bass-baritone, Donna Elvira: soprano, Zerlina: soprano
  5. Secco Recitative
    • it is a dry recitative because it is only accompanied by a harpsichord, not a whole orchestra so it has a dry sound
    • was heard in Don Giovanni
  6. Patter Singing
    • singing words quickly so it sounds like comical talking
    • wide lepas in vocal line (also comical)
    • was used in Don Giovanni in Leporello's "Catalogue Aria"
  7. 4 Movement Format
    • I. fast tempo: sonata form
    • II. slow tempo: theme and variations form, aria-like
    • III. dance like tempo (moderate): minuet and trio form
    • IV. fast tempo: rondo form
    • (ex: Beethoven's String Quartet)
  8. 1st Movement
    • Sonata Form: fast
    • 1. exposition: 1st theme in tonic key; bridge to new key; 2nd theme in new key (the dominant or V if tonic (I) is a major key); closing theme
    • 2. development: new treatments of previously heard themes (often broken up into motives); modulations to various keys
    • 3. recapitulation: 1st theme in tonic key; bridge (but now in tonic key); 2nd theme in tonic key; closing section [coda] in tonic key
  9. 2nd Movement
    • theme and varians form: slow
    • ex: Haydyn's Symphony #94: "Surprise"
    • these are "decorative variations"
    • II. Andante: AA'A''A'''...etc
  10. 3rd Movement
    • minuet and trio form: dance-like
    • similar to later movements termed "scherzo": keeps same design
    • A (a:||ba':||) B (c:||dc'||) A' (aba')
    • ex: Mozart: Einekleine Nachtmusik: serenade (III. Minuet)
  11. 4th Movement
    • rondo form: fast
    • ABA'CA''B'A' [coda]
    • this design is called the "short rondo"
  12. Franz Joseph Haydyn (1723-1809)
    • born in rohraw, Austria: very rural, listened to rustic and fold music
    • went to Vienna as a choirboy after his soprano voice changed
    • Esterhazy Family: royal family of Hungary, they were looking for new composer and hired him to work there for the rest of his life
    • Esterhaza: a house built on the property of their palace, it was where he played
    • baryton: an instrument that Haydyn played at the Esterhaza; it was a string instrument w/ a second set of strings that you don't pluck but they just vibrate with the music
    • he composed 104 symphonies
    • he has 12 "London Symphonies" and they were the last he composed
    • Trumpet Concerto in E flat Major (most played); "sonata rondo form"; it was written for his friend who had a trumpet which was new at the time
  13. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
    • born in Salzburg, Austria
    • child prodigy: at 2 started playing back things on piano by ear; at 5 composed a minuet; composed symphonies around 6/7/8, wrote his first opera around 11/12 and toured Europe
    • went to Vienna at 25 and married Constanza and lived there forever
    • family was not happy because they wanted him to stay single so he could support them
    • excels at opera and piano concertos but creates masterpieces in all major genres
    • operas: Don Giovanni, Die Zauberflue (the magic flute), a German singspiel
    • cadenza: solo section for a solo performer in a concerto
  14. Ludwig Van Beethoven
    • born in Bonn, Germany
    • went to Vienna when he was 16 to meet Mozart but had to go back to Bonn
    • went back to Vienna permanently in 1729 right after Mozart died
    • then studied with Haydyn, reluctantly
    • Piano Sonata in c minor, Op. 13 "Pathetique" 1798 (means deeply felt)
    • sonata: (as a genre): an instrumental piece that is either a multi-movement piece for a solo piano or a solo instrument plus a piano
    • 9 symphonies: Symphony #5 in c minor, Op. 67, 1808, wrote it when he knew he was going deaf, Allegro con brio, scherzo: very fast
    • deafness and conversation booklets: people would write down their questions/responses in a booklet and he would say his response
    • Symphony #9: "choral" 1824; 4th movement uses chorus and soloists + orchestra; "Ode to Joy" theme; double fuge; film "Immortal Beloved" excerpt w/ music from this was about how he had an affair and a child w/ his sister-in-law (not true)
Card Set
Music: Classical Era
Classical Era