1. 70 MYA
    late cretaceous of mesozoic era, stem primates
  2. 63 MYA
    lemurs in madagascar , outgroup for all other primates, least derived of the lineages
  3. 58 MYA
  4. 40 MYA
    New world monkeys central and south america, either from rafting or a land bridge
  5. 25 MYA
    old world monkeys in africa and asia, speciation and what would become apes in africa
  6. 20 MYA
    lopst of tail among apes, migration of hominoid ancestors to asia
  7. 18 MYA
    speciation of asia apes that led to the gibbons in asia that had migrated from africa
  8. 8 MYA
    migration of some great apes back to africa
  9. 7 MYA
    speciation of gorillas and chimps
  10. homoniods
    both asia apes and africa apes, all apes which separates them from the monkeys including hominins
  11. foramen magnum
    hole that allows spinal cord and brian, more posterior in a chimp because of bipedal
  12. Sahelanthropus
    • 6 MYA, earliest known hominin
    • brain 300 cc
    • small teeth
    • facultative bipedal
  13. ardipithecus ramidus
    • facultative bipedal
    • brain case 300-350 cc
  14. australopithecus
    • 3.2 MYA in east africa, Lucy was the first female
    • brain case 400-500 cc
    • mostly bipedal
    • large molars for a herbivorous diet
    • foramen magnum moved forward
  15. homo habilis
    • 2 MYA in north africa
    • 600-800 cc brain case, fully bipedal, stone making
  16. homo erectus
    • 1.8 MYA africa , 1.7 Asia
    • 1000 cc brain case
    • advanced stone making, used fire
    • first homini to migrate out of africa into eurasia
    • lonegest living
  17. homo neanderthalensis
    • 600 K
    • 1500 cc brain case
    • advanced stone, fire, rituals
  18. homo sapians
    • 170 K in southeast africa moved to eurasia 50K asia to north america 15K
    • 1400 brain case
    • cave paintings, complex rituals
    • 10k agriculture
  19. trellis model
    • interbreeding between some hominins, if two species are different they should not be able to make new species that survive, shows interbreeding
    • migration without replacement and horizontal gene transfer
  20. out of africa replacement model
    • evolved in africa and evolved in europe, bottleneck due to severe drought killed off population and therefore little genetic diversity
    • reduced population therefore evolved into homo eretus
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